Unit II

Atomic Theory

Worksheets

 

 

Lesson††††††††††† Date††††††††††††††† Topic††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† WS #

 

1.†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Early Atomic Theory††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1

2.†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Bohr Evidence††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††2

3.†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Bohr Diagrams††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 3

4.†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Quantum Theory††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††  4

5.†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Mass Spectrometer/ Elegant Universe-1 ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 5

6.†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Elegant Universe-2/Periodic Chem†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 6

7.†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Ionic Theory ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††             7

8.†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Classifying Matter Lab††††††††††††††††††††††                                      8

9.†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Classifying and Naming Formulas 1†††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††  9

10.†††††† ††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Classifying and Naming Formulas 2 ††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††† 10

11.†††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Electron Dot Diagram Structural Formula 1†††††††††††††††††††††††††† 11

12.†††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Electron Dot Diagram 2††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 12

13.†††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Practice Test 1††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††            13

14.†††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Practice Test 2†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††            14

15.†††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††††††††† Test ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††


 

Worksheet # 1†††††††††††††† Early Atomic Theory

 

Briefly describe each atomic theory listed below.Include a diagram.

 

1. ††††† The Four-Element Theory

 

†††††††††

†††††††††     The Four Element Theory

†††††††††

††††††††† (a) evidence†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† (b) explanation within theory

 

††††††††† No evidence††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Nonscientific Theory

 

 

††††††††††††††††††

 

2. ††††† Daltonís Atomic Theory

 

†††††††††

†††††††††

††††††††† (a) Evidence†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† (b) Explanation within theory

 

††††††††† Conservation of mass†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††           Atoms are indestructible

 

††††††††† Law of Constant composition††††††††††††††††††           Elements combine in simple ratios

 

 

 

 

3. ††††† The Thompson Atom

 

 

†††††††††

††††††††† (a) Evidence†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† (b) Explanation within theory

 

††††††††† Electrical Nature of Matter††††††††††††††††††††††          Positive and negative particles

 

 

 

 

 

 

Worksheet # 2 ††††††††††††† Early Atomic Theory

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. ††††† The Rutherford Atom

 

 

†††††††††

††††††††† (a) Evidence†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† (b) Explanation within theory

 

††††††††† A few alphas are radically deflected††††††††           Small dense nucleus

 

††††††††† Most alphas are not deflected††††††††††††††††††           Most of atom is empty space

†††††††††

 

 

 

2. ††††† The Bohr Atom

 

 

 

†††††††††

      ††† The Bohr Atom

†††††††††

††††††††† (a) evidence†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† (b) explanation within theory

 

††††††††† Line spectrum of discharge tubes†††††††††††† Electrons are in orbitals

 

 

 

 

 

 

Worksheet # 3 ††††††††††††† Bohr Diagram

†††††††††

 

 

Draw Bohr atomic diagrams for the following atoms.Be sure to include protons, neutrons and electrons.

 

1. ††††† Oxygen††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 7. ††††† Calcium

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.†††† Silver†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 8. ††††† Barium

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.†††††† Cs††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 9.†††††† I

 

 

 

cs

 

 

4.†††††† Na†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 10.†††† V

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


5.†††††† Cl-†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 11.†††† Al3+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


6. Se2-†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 12.†††† Ca2+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

Worksheet #4††††††††††††††† Quantum Mechanics

 

1. ††††† What is the main difference between the Bohr Theory of the atom and the Quantum Mechanical Theory?

 

††††††††† Electrons are waves in Quantum Theory and particles in the Bohr Theory.

 

 

 

2. ††††† How many electrons will fill the smallest orbital in quantum mechanical theory?

 

††††††††† Two

 

 

3. ††††† How is a 3s orbital different than a 2s orbital in terms of shape and distance from the nucleus?

 


††††††††† They are both spherical in shape but the 3s is further from the nucleus.††††††††

 

 

 

 

 

4. ††††† Explain what happens to the energy when an electron falls from a 3s orbital to a 2s orbital.

 

††††††††† Energy is emitted in the form of a photon of light with energy corresponding to the difference between the two ††† orbitals.

 

 

Use your Quantum Periodic Table to write quantum electron configurations for each element below.

 

5.†††††† F†††††† 1s22s22p5

 

6.†††††† K†††††† 1s22s22p63s23p64s1

 

7.†††††† C†††††† 1s22s22p2

 

8.†††††† Kr†††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p6

 

9.†††††† S†††††† 1s22s22p63s23p4

 

10.†††† Rb†††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p65s1

 

11.†††† Co†††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p63d74s2

 

12.†††† P†††††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p3

 

13.†††† Ca†††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p64s2

 

14.†††† Al††††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p1

 

15.†††† Ag†††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p64d95s2

 

16.†††† 1s22s22p63s1†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Na

 

17.†††† 1s22s22p63s23p5††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††          Cl

 

18.†††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d94s2††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††          Cu

 

19.†††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p5†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† I

 

20.†††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d104f145s25p66s2 †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Ba

 

 

 

21.             Give the formula of four chemical species that are isoelectronic (same electron configuration) as Ar.

 

 

S2- ††††††††††††† P3- ††††††††††††††††††††††† Cl-†††††††††††††† K+†††††††††††††††††††††††† Ca2+

 

 


Worksheet # 5†††††††††††††† Mass Spectrometry

 

Calculate the average atomic mass for each element.Round off to the correct number of sig figs.Write down the atomic mass from the periodic table rounded off to the same number of sig figs.

 

Isotope†††††† Mass††††††††††††††††††† % Abundance††††††††††††††† Average Mass††††††††††††††† Atomic Mass (table)†††

 

1.†††††††††††††††

 

14N††††††††††††† 14.0030744†††††††††† 99.6340††††††††††††††††††††††††14.0067 amu†††††††††††††††† 14.0067 amu

15N††††††††††††† 15.000108††††††††††† 0.366001†††††††††††††

 

††††††††† 0.996340(14.0030744)+0.00366001(15.000108)=14.0067 amu

 

 

 

 

2.

20Ne††††††††††† 19.992404††††††††††† 90.92†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 20.2 amu†††††††††††††††††††††† 20.1798 amu

21Ne††††††††††† 20.993849††††††††††† 0.257†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

22Ne††††††††††† 21.991385††††††††††† 8.82††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

††††††††† 0.9092(19.992404)+0.00257(20.993849)+0.0882(21.991385)=20.2 amu

 

 

 

3.

46Ti†††††††††††† 45.952633††††††††††† 7.93†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 47.9 amu†††††††††††† 47.90 amu

47Ti†††††††††††† 46.95176††††††††††††† 7.28††

48Ti†††††††††††† 47.947948††††††††††† 73.94††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

49Ti†††††††††††† 48.947867††††††††††† 5.51

50Ti†††††††††††† 49.944789††††††††††† 5.34

 

††††††††† You will lose marks if you donít show the work!

 

 

4.

54Fe†††††††††††† 53.93962††† 5.8202†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 55.847 amu†††††††††††††††††† 55.845 amu

56Fe†††††††††††† 55.93493††† 91.660††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

57Fe†††††††††††† 56.93539††† 2.1901

58Fe†††††††††††† 57.93327††† 0.33001

 

††††††††† You will lose marks if you donít show the work!

 

 5.††††† Silver has two common isotopes. One is 106.90508 amu and 51.35 % and the other is 48.65 %.If the average atomic mass is 107.9730 amu, what is the atomic mass of the other isotope?

 

 

106.90508 (.5135) +X(0.4865)†† =107.9730 amu†††

NOW SOLVE FOR X

 

109.1 amu

 

6.                 Copper has two common isotopes. One is 62.92959 amu and 69.09 % and the other is 30.91 %.If the average atomic mass is 63.5472 amu, what is the atomic mass of the other isotope.

 

62.92959 (.6909) +X(0.3091)†† =63.5472 amu†††

NOW SOLVE FOR X

 

64.92 amu

 

††††††††††††††††††

 

7. ††††† Complete the chart below.

 

 

protons

electrons

neutrons

28Si

14

14

14

29Si

14

14

15

30Si

14

14

16

 

 

8. ††††† Write a quantum electron configuration for each of the following.

 

††††††††† a) Ne †††††††††††††††††† 1s22s22p6

 

††††††††† b) Mg

 

††††††††† c) Ti††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p63d24s2

 

††††††††† d) Cr

 

††††††††† e) Sr††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p65s2

 

††††††††† f) Ag

 

††††††††† g) Br†††††††††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p5

 

 

9. ††††† What was the first atomic theory to account for the Law of Conservation of Mass?

††††††††† Explain how the theory accomplished this.

 

††††††††† Dalton.††††††††††††††††††††††† Atoms are indestructible.

 

 

 

10. ††† What was the first atomic theory to account for electromagnetic radiation (light)?

††††††††† Explain how the theory accomplished this.

 

 

††††††††† Bohr Theory. †††††††††††††† Electrons are in orbitals.

 

 

11.†††† What was the first atomic theory to account for the small, dense nucleus?

††††††††† Explain how the theory accomplished this.

 

 

††††††††† Rutherford Atom. †††††† A few alpha particles were radically deflected.

 

 

 

12. ††† What was the first atomic theory to have a wave theory for the electron?

††††††††† Explain how the theory accomplished this.

 

††††††††† Quantum Theory. †††††† Electrons vibrate around the nucleus in 3 dimensional wavelike orbitals.

 

 

 

13. ††† What was the first atomic theory to account for positive and negative charges in matter?Explain how the theory ††††††††† accomplished this.

 

††††††††† Thomson Atom. The matter in the atom was positive with negative particles throughout.

 

 

Worksheet # 6 ††††††††††††† Periodic Chemistry

 

1. ††††† Define the following:

 

a) ††††† Oxidation †††††††††††    Loss of electrons

 

 

b) †††† Reduction††††††††††††   Gain of electrons

 

 

c) ††††† Anion†††††††††††††††††††  Negative ion

 

 

d) †††† Cation†††††††††††††††††    Positive ion

 

 

e) ††††† Atom ††††††††††††††††††  Neutral particle of an element

 

 

f) ††††† Chemical family††   Column on Periodic Table

 

 

g) ††††† Period†††††††††††††††††† Row on Periodic Table

 

 

 

2. ††††† Why are noble gases stable?††† Full outer or valence shells

 

 

 

3. ††††† Why are non-noble gases un-stable or reactive?Incomplete outer or valence shells

 

 

 

 

4. ††††† Draw Bohr diagrams for the following chemical species.

 

a) ††††† He††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b) †††† K

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c) ††††† K+††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† d) †††† S2-

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

e) ††††† P3-††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† f) ††††† Li+

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. ††††† Fill in the chart below.

 

symbol

atom,

cation or

anion

protons

neutrons

electrons

valence electrons

stable or reactive?

 

Mg2+

 

cation

 

12

 

12

 

10

 

8

 

stable

 

Mg

 

atom

 

12

 

12

 

12

 

2

 

unstable

 

F

 

atom

 

9

 

10

 

9

 

7

 

unstable

 

F-

 

anion

 

9

 

10

 

10

 

8

 

stable

 

Ne

 

atom

 

10

 

10

 

10

 

8

 

stable

 

C

 

atom

 

6

 

6

 

6

 

4

 

unstable

 

Be

 

atom

 

4

 

5

 

4

 

2

 

unstable

 

Be2+

 

cation

 

4

 

5

 

2

 

2

 

stable

 

N3-

 

anion

 

7

 

7

 

10

 

8

 

stable

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Worksheet # 7 ††††††††††††† Ionic Chemistry

 

1.

symbol

atom,

cation or

anion

protons

neutrons

electrons

valence electrons

stable or reactive?

 

Ga

 

Atom

 

31

 

39

 

31

 

3

 

Reactive

 

Ga3+

 

Cation

 

31

 

39

 

28

 

18

 

Stable

 

Br

 

Atom

 

35

 

45

 

35

 

7

 

Unstable

 

Br-

 

Anion

 

35

 

45

 

36

 

8

 

Stable

 

Kr

 

Atom

 

36

 

48

 

36

 

8

 

Stable

 

Ca

 

Atom

 

20

 

20

 

20

 

2

 

Unstable

 

Ca2+

 

Cation

 

20

 

20

 

18

 

8

 

Stable

 

P

 

Atom

 

15

 

16

 

15

 

5

 

Unstable

 

P3-

 

Anion

 

15

 

16

 

18

 

8

 

Stable

 

2.†††††† What happens to protons, electrons and neutrons as you move form left to right within a row on the periodic table?

 

 

††††††††† Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons all increase.

 

 

3. ††††† Write half-reactions to show how each atom forms an ion. Label each as oxidation ††† or reduction. The first two are done for you.

 

a) ††††† K†††††† †††† K+†††† +†††††† 1e-†††††††††††††††††††††††† oxidation

 

b) †††† N2††††† +†† ††† 6e-†††† ††††† 2N3-††††††††††††††††††††  reduction

 

c) ††††† P†††††† +†† ††† 3e-†††† ††††† P3-†††††††††††††††††††††††† reduction

†††††††††

d) †††† O2†††† +†† ††† 4e-†††† ††††† 2O2-†††††††††††        reduction

 

e) ††††† Ca†††† ††††† Ca2+††† +†† 2e-††††††††††††††††       oxidation

 

f) ††††† Br2†††††† +†† ††† 2e-†††† ††††† 2Br-†††††††††††      reduction

 

g) ††††† I2††††††††††† +†† ††† 2e-†††† ††††† 2I-††††††††††††††    reduction

 

h) †††† Al††††† ††††† Al3+††† +†† 3e-†††††††††††††††††        oxidation

 

i) ††††† Ba†††† ††††† Ba2+††† +†† 2e-†††††††††††††††††       oxidation

 

j) ††††† Cs†††† †††† Cs+††† +†††††† 1e-††††††††††††††††††††††††  oxidation

 

k) †††† Mg††† ††††† Mg2+††† +†† 2e-†††††† †††††††††      oxidation

 

l) ††††† Zn†††† ††††† Zn2+††† +†† 2e-††††††††††††††††        oxidation

 

m) ††† Ga†††† ††††† Ga3+††† +†† 3e-††††††††††††††††       oxidation

 

n)††††† Cl2††††††† +†† ††† 2e-†††† ††††† 2Cl-††††††††††     †† reduction

 

o)††††† F2††††††††† +†† ††† 2e-†††† ††††† 2F-††††††††††     ††† reduction

 

 

4. ††††† Describe five properties of: †††

††††††††† a) Metals

 

††††††††† Shiny†††††††††††††††††† Conductors†††††††††††††††††† Malleable†††††††††††† Ductile††††††† Lose electrons††††††††† Left side of periodic table

 

††††††††† b) Non-metals

 

††††††††† Dull††††††††††† Nonconductors†††††††††††† Brittle†††††††††††††††††† Gain electrons†††††††††††††† Right side of periodic table

 

 

5. ††††† Draw Bohr diagrams for each of the following.

 

††††††††† a) Na†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b) Na+

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

†††††††††

 

 

 

 

 

††††††††† c) O†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† d) O2-

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

††††††††† e) Ca†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† f) Ca2+

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Worksheet # 8

 

1. ††††† Complete the table.

 

 

 

 

Salt

 

Base

 

Acid

Covalent Nonacid

 

Litmus

 

Neutral

 

Blue

 

Red

 

Neutral

 

Conductivity

 

Good

 

Good

 

Good

 

Non

 

 

2. ††††† Put each formula into the table below.

 

Ca(OH)2†††††††††††††††††††††††† NH4OH††††††††††††††† CH3OH†††††††††††††††† C12H24O11

 

HCl††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† PI3††††††††††††††††††††††† K2SO4††††††††††††††††††RbOH

 

H3PO4††††††††††††††††††††††††††† NaOH††††††††††††††††††CaCl2†††††††††††††††††††††††††Li2SO4

 

H2SO3††††††††††††††††††††††††††† BaF2†††††††††††††††††††† BCl5†††††††††††††††††††† CH3COOH

 

H2CO3††††††††††††††††††††††††††† CsOH††††††††††††††††††S2Cl2†††††††††††††††††††† Fr2S

 

 

 

Salt

 

Base

 

Acid

 

Covalent Nonacid

 

K2SO4

 

Ca(OH)2

 

HCl

 

CH3OH

 

CaCl2

 

NH4OH

 

H3PO4

 

C12H24O11

 

Li2SO4

 

RbOH

 

H2SO3

 

PI3

 

BaF2

 

NaOH

 

CH3COOH

 

BCl5

 

Fr2S

 

CsOH

 

H2CO3

 

S2Cl2

 

 

3. ††††† Draw Bohr diagrams for each of the following.

††††††††† a) K+†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b) P3-

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

4. ††††† Write half-reactions to show how each atom forms an ion. Label each as oxidation or reduction. The first two are done for you.

 

a) †††† Ca†††† †††† Ca2++†††††† 2e-†††††††††††††††††††††††† oxidation

 

b) †††† O2†††† +†† ††† 4e-†††† ††††† 2O2-†††††††††††††††††  †† reduction

 

c) ††††† I2†††††† +†††††† 2e-†††† ††††† 2I-††††††††††††††      reduction

†††††††††

d) †††† N2††††† +†† ††† 6e-†††† ††††† 2N3-†††††††††††††††††††† reduction

 

e) ††††† Cs†††† †††† Cs+††† +†††††† e-††††††††††††††††      oxidation

 

f) ††††† Ba†††† †††† Ba2++†††††† 2e-†††††††††††††     † oxidation

 

g)††††† Al††††† → †††† Al3+†† +†††††† 3e-††††††††††††††       oxidation

 

h)††††† F2 +†† 2e-†††† →††††† 2F-†††††††††††††††††††††††      reduction

 

i)†††††† H2†††† →††††† 2H+††††† +††††† 2e-†††††        †††††† oxidation

 

j)†††††† Na+††††† +†† 1e-††††††††† †† Na(s)†††††††††††††††††††††reduction

 

k)††††† N3-†††† ††††† N2††††† +†††††† 6e-††††††††††††††††††††††††oxidation

 

l)†††††† Ca2+††† +   2e-†† → †††† Ca†††††††††††††††††††††††   reduction

 

m)†††† Ba2+ +   2e-†† ††††† Ba ††††††††††††††††††††††     reduction

 

 

  


Worksheet # 9

 

1. ††††† Complete the following table by classifying and naming each compound.

 

 

Formula

 

Classification

 

Name

 

CuS(s)

 

Salt

 

Copper II sulphide

 

H3PO4(s)

 

 

covalent nonacid (acids must be aq)

 

Hydrogen phosphate

 

P2O5(s)

 

 

Nonacid

 

Diphosphorus pentoxide

 

NH4OH(s)

 

 

Base

 

Ammonium hydroxide

 

Al2O3(s)

 

 

Salt

 

Aluminum oxide

 

MgSO4(s)

 

 

Salt

 

Magnesium sulphate

 

HCl(g)

 

 

covalent nonacid (acids must be aq)

 

Hydrogen chloride

 

HCl(aq)

 

 

Acid

 

Hydrochloric acid

 

H2SO4(l)

 

 

covalent nonacid (acids must be aq)

 

Hydrogen sulphate

 

H2SO4(aq)

 

 

Acid

 

Sulphuric acid

 

NI3(s)

 

 

Nonacid

 

Nitrogen triiodide

 

N3Cl3(s)

 

 

Nonacid

 

Trinitrogen trichloride

 

CO(g)

 

 

Nonacid

 

Carbon monoxide

 

K2CrO4(s)

 

 

Salt

 

Potassium chromate

 

H2Cr2O7(aq)

 

 

Acid

 

Dichromic acid

 

H2O(l)

 

 

Nonacid

 

Water

 

CrCO3(s)

 

 

Salt

 

Chromium II carbonate

 

HBr(g)

 

 

covalent nonacid (acids must be aq)

 

Hydrogen bromide

 

P3O5(s)

 

 

Nonacid

 

Triphosphorus pentoxide

 

 

 

 

 

Worksheet # 10

 

2. ††††† Complete the following table by classifying and naming each compound.

 

 

Formula

 

Classification

 

Name

 

HI (aq)

 

 

Acid

 

Hydroiodic acid

 

(NH4)3PO4(s)

 

 

Salt

 

Ammonium phosphate

 

NCl3(l)

 

 

Nonacid

 

Nitrogen trichloride

 

Ba(OH)2(s)

 

 

Base

 

Barium hydroxide

 

Rb2SO4(s)

 

 

Salt

 

Rubidium sulphate

 

CuCl2(s)

 

 

Salt

 

Copper II chloride

 

Al2O3(aq)

 

 

Salt

 

Aluminum oxide

 

N3Cl3(aq)

 

 

Nonacid

 

Trinitrogen trichloride

 

CO(g)

 

 

Nonacid

 

carbon monoxide

 

H2SO3(aq)

 

 

Acid

 

Sulphurous acid

 

CuSO4 . 6H2O(aq)

 

 

Salt

 

Copper II sulphate hexahydrate

 

H3PO3(s)

 

 

covalent nonacid (acids must be aq)

 

Hydrogen phosphite

 

Mg3(PO4)2(aq)

 

 

Salt

 

Magnesium Phosphate

 

HCH3COO(aq)

 

 

Acid

 

Acetic Acid or Ethanoic acid

 

HF(aq)

 

 

Acid

 

Hydrofluoric acid

 

N2O5(aq)

 

 

Nonacid

 

Dinitrogen pentoxide

 

Na3PO4 . 5H2O(aq)

 

 

Salt

 

Sodium phosphate pentahydrate

 

Ni(NO3)3(aq)

 

 

Salt

 

Nickel III nitrate

 

SO(g)

 

 

Nonacid

 

Sulphur monoxide

 


Use your Quantum Periodic Table to write quantum electron configurations for each element below.

 

3.†††††† Sr††††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p65s2††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

4.†††††† V††††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

5.†††† Mg††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s2

 

6.†††††† P†††††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p3

 

7.†††††† Cr†††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d44s2

 

 

 

Pick the best answers.Answers can be used more than once.

 

Answers:††† Four Element Theory††

†††††††††††††††††† Daltonís Atomic Theory

†††††††††††††††††† Thomsonís Atomic Theory

†††††††††††††††††† Rutherfordís Atomic Theory

†††††††††††††††††† Bohrís Atomic Theory

†††††††††††††††††† Quantum Mechanical Theory

 

8.†††††† Rutherfordís Atomic Theory††††††††† The 1st model of the atom to explain the gold foil experiment

 

9.†††††† Bohrís Atomic Theory†††††††††††††††††††† The 1st model to explain light

 

10.†††† Daltonís Atomic Theory††††††††††††††††† The 1st model to account for the Law of Constant Composition

 

11.†††† Rutherfordís Atomic Theory††††††††† The 1st model to have a small, dense nucleus

 

12.†††† Quantum Mechanical Theory†††††††† The 1st model to have an electron as a wave

 

13. ††† Four Element Theory††††††††††††††††††††† Non-scientific Theory

 

14. ††† Thomsonís Atomic Theory††††††††††††† The 1st model to have electrons

 

15.†††† Daltonís Atomic Theory††††††††††††††††† The 1st model to account for the Law of Conservation of Mass

 

16. ††† Quantum Mechanical Theory†††††††† Modern theory of the atom

 

17. ††† Rutherfordís Atomic Theory††††††††† The 1st model to claim the atom is mainly ďempty spaceĒ

 

Worksheet # 11†††††††††††† Electron Dot Diagrams

 

Draw structural and electron-dot diagrams for each.

 

Structural

Dot-Diagram

 

CH4

CH4

CH4

 

CI4

††††††††††††

CI4

†††††††CI4dot

 

S2

 

 

† †S2††††

 

†††S2

 

P2

 

P2 Struc

 

P2-dot

 

C2Cl6

 

C2H6

†††††††††††††††

C2H6dot

 

C2F4

 

 

C2F4

 ††††††††††††† 

 

C2F4dot

 

 

NF3

 

NF3-Struc

NF3-Dot

 

CS2

 

CS2-struc

 

CS2-dot

 

 

N2Cl2

 

N2Cl2-struc

 

N2Cl2-dot

††† †††††††††††††

HCN

 

 

HCN-struc

 

 

HCN-dot

 

CH4N2O

(symmetrical)

††

CH4N2O-struc

 

CH4N2O-dot

 

C6H6

 

(cyclic)

benzene structure

 benzene dot

 

CF4

††††††††††

 

†††††††††††† ..

†††††††††† : F :

††††† ..†††† ..††† ..

†† :F׃ C ׃ F :

†††††† ..†††† ..†† ..

††††††††††† : F :

††††††††††††† ..

 

N2Cl4

 

††† Cl Ė NĖN Ė Cl

†††††††††††† |††††††† |

†††††††††† Cl††† Cl

 

 †††††

 

NBr3

 

††† Br Ė N Ė Br

†††††††††††† |

††††††††††† Br

†††† ..†††† ..††† ..

†† : Br : N : Br :

†††† ..††††† ..††† ..

††††††††† : Br :

†††††††††††† ..

 

N2

 

 

††††††† NN

 

 

††††† : N : : : N :

 

O2

 

 

†††††††† O = O

 

†††††††††  ..††††† ..

††††††† : O : : O :

 

I2

 

††††††††† I-I

 

††††  ..†††† ..

††† : I:I :

†††††  ..† †† ..

 

CO2

 

†††† O = C = O

††††† ..††††††††††††† ..

††† : O : : C : : O :

 

 

COBr2

††††††††††† Br

†††††††††††† |

†† ††O = C

†††††††††††† |

††††††††††† Br

 †††††††††††††† ..†††††

††††††††††† : Br :

†††††††††††††† ..

††† : O : : C

†††††††††††  †† ..

†††††††††  † : Br :

††††††††††††  † ..

 

 

CNCl2F

(symmetrical)

 

a

 ††††

††††††††††††††††††† †† ..††††††††

††††††††††††††††††  : Cl:††††

††††† ..†††††††††††  † ..

††† : F :C : : :N

††††† ..†††††††††††  † ..

†††††††††††††††††   : Cl :

 †††††††††††††††††††† ††††† ..

 

Name each compound

1.     †††††††† CH3COOH(aq)†††††† Acetic or ethanoic acid

2.     †††††††† HBr(aq)††††††††††††††††† Hydrobromic acid

3.     †††††††† HF(g)†††††††††††††††††††† Hydrogen fluoride

4.     †††††††† HNO3(aq)†††††††††††††† Nitric acid

5.     †††††††† HClO4(aq)†††††††††††††† Perchloric acid

Write the quantum electron configurations for the following.

6.     †††††††† Cl-†††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p6

7.     †††††††† Sr2+†††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p6

8.     †††††††† I††††††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p64d105p5

Write a dissociation equation for each to show how each ionizes in water.

9. ††††† CH3COOH(l)†††††††††††† ††† H+(aq)††† +††† CH3COO-(aq)

10. ††† HNO3(l)†††††††††††††††† ††††† H+(aq)††† +††† NO3-(aq)

11. ††† Al2(SO4)3(s)†††††††††† ††††† 2Al3+(aq)††† +††† 3SO42-(aq)

12. ††† Co3(PO4)2(s)††††††††† ††††† 3Co2+(aq)††† +††† 2PO43-(aq)

Name each compound above.

13.†††† Hydrogen acetate

14.†††† Hydrogen nitrate

15.†††† Aluminum sulphate

16.†††† Cobalt II phosphate

17. Classify the following compounds.

 

NaOH†††††††††††††††††††††††††††             BaF2††††††††††††††††††††††††††† BCl5†††††††††††††††††††† CH3COOH

 

H2CO3††††††††††††††††††††††††††† CsOH†††††††††††††††††† S2Cl2†††††††††††††††††††† BaCl2

 

 

 

Salt

 

Base

 

Acid

 

Covalent Nonacid

BaF2

 

NaOH

CH3COOH

S2Cl2

BaCl2

 

CsOH

H2CO3

BCl5

 

 

 

Worksheet # 12 ††††††††††† Electron Dot Diagrams

 

Draw structural and electron-dot diagrams for each.

 

 

ClO3-

 

 

 

CiO3-

 

 

PO43-

 

††††††††††† ..†††††††††††††††3-

††††††††† : O :

†† ††††..††† ..†† ..

†††† : O : P : O :

††††††† ..††† ..††† ..

†††††††††† : O :

†††††††††††† ..

 

 

 

 

IO3-

 

 

†††††††††††††††††††††† -

†††††††††††† ..

†††† : O : I : O :

†††††††††††† ..

†††††††††† : O :

†††††††††††† ..

 

 

BrO3-

-

††††††† ..†††† ..†† ..

†††† : O :Br: O :

††††††† ..††† ..††† ..

†††††††††† : O :

††††††††††††† ..

 

 

 

 

CN-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NO3-

††††††† -

†††††† ..††††††††††† ..

†††† : O : N :: O :

††††††† ..†††† ..

††††††††††† : O :

†††††††††††††† ..

 

 

 

 

SO42-

 

 

††††††††††† †††††††††††††2-

†††††††††††† ..

††††††††† : O :

†††††† ..††† ..††† ..

†††† : O : S : O :

††††††† ..†† ..††† ..

††††††††† : O :

†††††††††††† ..

 

 

 

CaCO3

†††††††††††††††††     2+††††††††††††††

††††††††††††††††††††††

      Ca††††††††††

††††

††††††††

†††††

 

 

 

 

 

Li2SO4

 

 

 

†††††††††††††††††††† +††††††††††††††

†††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††

2††††† Li †††††††††

††††

††††††††††† †††††††††††††2-

†††††††††††† ..

††††††††† : O :

†††††† ..††† ..††† ..

†††† : O : S : O :

††††††† ..†† ..††† ..

††††††††† : O :

†††††††††††† ..

 

 

 

 

CCl4

††††††††††††† ..

†††††††††† : Cl :

††††† ..††††† ..†††† ..

†† :Cl׃ C ׃ Cl :

†††††† ..††††† ..††† ..

††††††††††† : Cl :

†††††††††††††† ..

 

 

NI3

 

 

 

†††††††††

†††††† ..††† ..††† ..

††† :I׃ N ׃ I :

††††††† ..†† ..††† ..

†††††††††† : I :

†††††††††††† ..

 

 

NSCl

†††††††††††††††††††††††††    ..†††††††††††  ..

††† : Cl : N : : S :

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††† ..†††††††††††††

 

 

NH4+

 

 

††††††††††† H††††††††††††† +

†††††††††††† ..

††††† H : N : H

†††††† †††..††

††††††††††† H

 

 

H3O+

 

†††††††††††††††††

††††††††††

 

††††††††††††

 

 

NaCl

 

 

†††

††††††††††† +††††††††††††††      

†††† ..††††††††††††††††† ..††

: Na :††††††††† : Cl :

†††† ..†††††† ..

 

 

 

 

ClO3-

††††††††††††††††††††††

†††††

 

 

 

Draw structural and electron-dot diagrams for each.

 

 

BrO4-

 

 

††††††††††† †††††††††           †3-

††††††††††††† ..

†††††††††† : O :

†††††† ..†††† ..†† ..

†††† : O : Br : O :

†††††††††††† ..

††††††† †††: O :

†††† ..

 

 

 

 

PO33-

††††††††††† ††††††††††      3-

†††††††††††† ..

††††††††† : O :

†††††† ..††† ..†† ..

†††† : O : P : O :

†††††††††††† ..

†††††††††

††††

 

 

IO4-

 

 

††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††-

†††††††††††† ..

††††††††† : O :

†††††† ..††† ..†† ..

†††† : O : I: O :

††††††† ..†† ..††† ..

††††††††† : O :

†††† ..

 

 

 

NO3-

†††††††††††† ..†††††††††††     -

††††††††† : O :

†††††† ..††† ..†† ..

†††† : O : N : : O :

††††††  .. 

 

 

HCN

 

 

 

 

††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††  

††† H : C : : : N :

 

 

 

SO32-

††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††2-

††††††††††††† ..

†††††††††† : O :

†††††† ..†††† ..†† ..

†††† : O : S : O :

††††††† ..††† ..††† ..

†††††††††

 

 

 

 

CO32-

 

 

 

 

 

CaS

 

 

 

††††††††††††††††† 2+††††††††††††††

†††††††††††††††††††††††††

    Ca††††††††††

††††

2-

†††††††††† ..†††††††††††

†††††††† : S :††††††

†††††††††† ..†††

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Na2SO4

 

 

 

 

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

†††††††††††††††††††††††† +†††††††††

†††† 2††††† Na††† †††††††

†††††††††††††††

              

                2-

†††††† ..†††††††††††

†††† : S :††††††

†††††† ..†††

 

 

 

NCl3

 

 

 

N2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O2

 

 

††††††† ..††††† ..

††††† : O : : O :

††††††

 

 

 

Cl2

 

 

 

†††††† ..††††† ..

††† : Cl: Cl :

†††††† ..††††† ..

 

 

 

 

 

C2H6

 

 

 

C2H4

 

 

 

 

 

C2H2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

†††††††††

 †††††††† Draw electron dot diagrams for each ionic compound

 

 

 

LiCl

 

 

 

†††††††††††††††††††††††† ..†††††

[Li]+††† [ :Cl: ]-

†††††††††††††††††††††††† ..

 

 

Na2O

 

 


    
††††††††††††††††††  ..††††††††††††††††

[ Na ]+†††† [ :O: ]2-[ Na ]+

††††††††††††††††††††††   ..††††††††††††††

 

 

K2S

 

 

    

 †††  †††††††††††††   ..†††††††††††††††

[K ]+†††† [ : S : ]2-[ K ]+

†††††††††††††††††††   ..††† †††††††††††

 

 

BaO

 

 

 

†††††††††††††††††††††††† ..†††††

[ Ba ]2+††† [ :O: ]2-

††††††††††††††††††††††††  ..

 

 

GaH3

 

 

†††††††††††††††††† [ H: ]-††††

 ††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

[ H: ]-†††† [ Ga ]3+ [ H: ]-

†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††

 

Worksheet # 13†† Practice Test # 1

 

1.†††† Classify as stable or reactive.

 

††††††††† Na†† ††††††††† N+††††† †††††††††††††††††† Ne†††† †††††††††††††††††† Cl-†††† †††††††††††††††††† S2-†††† ††††††††† S3-††††† †††††††††

††††††††† P††††† †††††††††† P3-†††††††† †††††††††††††† Ca †††††††††††† Ca2+††††††††††† NaCl††††††† N3- ††††††

 

2.†††† Describe a metal and a nonmetal in terms of gaining or losing electrons.

 

††††††††† Metals lose electrons and nonmetals gain electrons.

 

 

3.†††† Why are noble gases always stable?

 

††††††††† Full outer shells

 

 

4.†††† Determine the number of valence electrons for:

 

††††††††† Ca†††† ††††††††† 2††††††† Ca2+†††† 8†††† Cl††††† 7††††††† Cl-†††††† 8

 

††††††††† O††††††† 6††† O2-†††††† 8†† Al††††† 3

 

5.†††† Draw a Bohr diagram for

 

††††††††† Ca †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Ca2+†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† N††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† N3-

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.†††† Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each.

 

 

Protons

Neutrons

Electrons

S

16

16

16

S2-††

16

16

18

Al

13

14

13

Al3+††

13

14

10

42Ca

20

22

20

 

 

7.†††† Classify as ionic or covalent compounds.

 

††††††††† HCl††††††††††††††††††††† CH3OH ††††††††††† H2O ††††††††† †††††††† NH4OH†††††† †††††††††††††††††

 

††††††††† NaCl ††††††††††††††††† MgSO4†††††††††††††††† CoCl2†† ††††††††††††††† H3PO4

 

††††††††† NH3††††† ††††††††††††††† P2O5 ††††††††††††††††††† Ba(OH)2

 

 

8.†††† Classify the above compounds into acids, non-acids, salts and bases.

 

††††††††† Acids††††††††††††††††††† H3PO4††††††††††††† HCl

 

††††††††† Bases††††††††††††††††††† NH4OH††††† Ba(OH)2

 

††††††††† Non-acids††††††††††† H2O††††††††††† NH3

 

††††††††† Salts†††††††††††††††††††† MgSO4†††††† NaCl

 

 

 

 

9.†††† Calculate the average atomic mass for magnesium using the following percentage abundance data.

 

††††††††††††††† 24Mg††††† ††††† 78.70%†† ††† (24.00 amu)††

††††††††††††††† 25Mg†† †††††††† 10.13%††† †† (25.00 amu)†††

††††††††††††††† 26Mg†††† †††††† 11.17%††† †† (26.00 amu)

 

††††††††† 0.7870(24.00) + .1013(25.00)+.1117(26.00)=24.32 amu

 

 

 

10.†† Write the formulas for each ionic compound.

 

††††††††† Magnesium chloride†††††† MgCl2

 

††††††††† Silver phosphate††††††††††† Ag3PO4

 

††††††††† Cobalt III oxide††††††††††††† Co2O3

 

††††††††† Zinc phosphate††††††††††††† Zn3(PO4)2

 

††††††††† Calcium nitride††††††††††††† Ca3N2

 

††††††††† Copper I nitrate†††††††††††† CuNO3

 

11.†† Name each ionic compound.

 

††††††††† Fe2(SO4)3††† ††††††††† iron III sulphate†††††††††††††††††††† CoCl3††††† †††††††††††† col

 

††††††††† Na2O††††† ††††††††††††† sodium oxide††††††††††††††††††††††††† AgCl†††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

††††††††† Na3PO4†††††††† ††††††† sodium phosphate††††††††††††††††† CaF2†††††††† †††††††††††

 

††††††††† NH4OH††††††††† ††††† ammonium hydroxide†††††††††† Ca(NO3)2††††††††††

 

††††††††† K2Cr2O7†† †††††††††††† potassium dichromate††††††††††† MgCrO4††††††

 

12. ††† Name each covalent compound.

 

††††††††† P2O5††††† †††††††††††††† diphosphorus pentoxide†††††††         N2O3†††† †††††††      dinitrogen trioxide††††††

 

††††††††† CO††††††††† †††††††††††† carbon monoxide†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† CO2†††††††† †††     carbon dioxide†††††††††

 

††††††††† SO2††††††††††† †††††††††† sulphur dioxide†††††††††††††††††††† P3O5 †††††††††† triphosphorus pentoxide††††††††† †††††††††

 

††††††††† C6H6†††††† ††††††††††††† hexacarbon hexahydride†††††† H2SO4(l)†††††† hydrogen sulphate

 

††††††††† HCl(l)††††††† ††††††††††† hydrogen chloride††††††††††††††††† HNO3(l)†††† hydrogen nitrate

 

††††††††† H2CrO4(aq)†††††††††††† chromic acid†††††††††††††††††††††††††† HF(aq) †††††††††    hydrofluoric acid

 

††††††††† H3PO4(l)††††††††††††††† hydrogen phosphate††††††††††††† H2CO3(aq)†††† carbonic acid

 

 

 

13. ††† Complete the chart below.

 

Protons

Neutrons

Electrons

Reactive or stable?

# of valence electrons

Li+

3

4

2

stable

2

S2-

16

16

18

stable

8

22Mg2+

12

10

10

stable

8

 

14.†† Write dissociation equations showing how each salt or acid dissolves in water and

†††††††† forms ions. The first one is done for you.

 

††††††††† MgCl2†††††† †††††† Mg2+††† +††† 2Cl-

 

††††††††† FeCl3††††††††††††† Fe3+††† +††† 3Cl-

 

††††††††† Co2(SO4)3††††† †† 2Co3+††† +††† 3SO42-

 

††††††††† HClO3††††† †††††††† H+††† +††† ClO3-

 

††††††††† H2Cr2O7††††† ††††† 2H+††† +††† Cr2O72-

 

16.†† Name each acid:

 

††††††††† HCl(aq)†††††††† †††††††††††††††††† hydrochloric acid††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††† HClO3(aq)†† ††††††††††† chloric acid

 

††††††††† HNO3(aq)†††††††††††††† nitric acid†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† HBr(aq)††††††††††††††††† hydrobromic acid

 

 

17.†† Classify each as formula units or molecules.

 

††††††††† NaF †††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††† H2O †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

††††††††† CH4††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† NH4Cl††††††

 

Ionic compounds start with metals and have formula units.

Covalent compounds start with nonmetals and have molecules.

†††††††††

††††††††† CaSO4††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† CH3OH††††† ††††††††††††††††††

 

††††††††† H2SO4

 

18.†† Indicate the solutions that conduct electricity.

 

††††††††† NaCl(s)††††† solid††††††††††††††††††† NaCl(aq)†† ††††††††††††

 

††††††††† Ca(OH)2(aq)†††† ††††††††††††††††††††††† HCl(aq)††††

 

††††††††† NH4OH(aq)†††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††† C6H12O6(aq)

 

 

19. ††† Consider the following electron configuration 1s22s22p6. Determine the element and

some ions that have the above electron configuration.

 

††††††††† Element††††††††††††††††††††††††† Ne††††††††††††††††††

 

††††††††† Cation††††††††††††††††† ††††††† Na+ or Mg2+††††††††† ††††††† †††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††

 

††††††††† Anion†††††††† ††††††††† †††††††††††††††††† F-††††† O2-†††† N3-

††††† ††† †††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††

20.†† Describe why NaCl(s) doesnít conduct electricity.Describe what happens to ††††

NaCl(s) when it is dissolved in water.Why does it conduct electricity?

 

††††††††† The ions in NaCl(s) are not free to move and conduct electricity.

When it is dissolved in water, the NaCl dissociates into ions that conduct electricity.

NaCl(s)†† Na+(aq)  +   Cl-(aq)

 

 

21.†† Write the quantum electron configuration for each (1s22s2p.....)

 

††††††††† He†††††††††††† 1s2†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Ar†††† 1s22s22p63s23p6

 

††††††††† Na†††† †††††††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s1†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Na+†††† 1s22s22p6

 

††††††††† Cl†††† †††††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p5†††††††††††††††††††††† Cl-††††† 1s22s22p63s23p6

 

††††††††† K††††††† ††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p64s1†††††††††††††††††† K+†††††† 1s22s22p63s23p6

 

††††††††† Br†††††† ††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5†††††† Br-†††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6

 

 

22. ††† What two particles make up most of the mass within an atom?†† Protons and neutrons.

 

23.†† I am an atom with 35p†† 40n.Who am I?†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Br

 

24.†† I am a cation with 56p††† 81n†† &54e.†† Who am I?†††††††††††††††††††††††† Ba2+

 

 

25.†† Define isotopes.†† Elements that have the same atomic number but different

atomic mass because of having different amounts of neutrons.

 

 

26.†† In Rutherfordís Gold foil experiment some particles were completely

un-deflected and others were radically deflected. Describe the significance of each in terms of the structure of the atom.

 

††††††††† There is a small dense positive nucleus in the center of the atom with most of the mass.

 

 

 

27.†† Define ionic and covalent bonding.

 

††††††††† Ionic bonding transfers an electron from the metal, which becomes a cation to the nonmetal,

which becomes the anion.

 

††††††††† Covalent bonding occurs between two nonmetals and involves shared electrons.

 

28.†† How many valence electrons are in the calcium ion?

 

††††††††† 8

 

29.†† How many valence electrons are in the fluoride ion?

 

††††††††† 8

 

30.†† What is the name of the family that has and electron configuration of:

 

a)†††† s2p5†††††††† †††††††† Halogens ††††††††††††††††††††††

 

b)††† s1††††††††††††††††††††††††† Alkali Metals††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

c)†††† s2p2†† †††††††††† ††††††† Carbon Family†††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

 

 

 

31. ††† Consider the following electron configuration 1s22s22s22p63s23p6 . Determine the element and some ions that have the above ††††††† electron configuration. These are called isoelectronic.

 

††††††††† Element:†††††††††††††† Ar††††††††††††††††††

 

††††††††† Cations:††††† ††††††††† K+†††† Ca2+††††† ††††† †††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††

 

††††††††† Anions:†††††† †††††††† Cl-††† S2-†† N3-††††† †††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††

 

Draw electron dot diagrams for the following using brackets for ions. Write a dissociation equation first.

 

32. ††† NaCl††††††††††

†††††† ††††††††††††††††††..†††††

[ Na ]+††† [ :Cl: ]-

††††††††††††††††††††††† ..

 

 

 

33. ††† Li2O

     †††††††††††††††††..††††††††††††††

[ Li ]+†††† [ :O: ]2-[ Li ]+

††††††††††††††††††††† ..†††††††††††††

 

 

34. ††† CaF2

     .. ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††..

[ :F: ]-†††† [ Ca ]2+[ :F: ]-

††† ..††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ..

 

 

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

Name and classify each compound as an acid, molecular, salt, or base.

 

35.†††† CuSO4(aq)††††††††††††† Salt††††††††††††††††††††† Copper II sulphate††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

36.†††† P2O4(s)†††††††††††††††††† Molecular††††††††††† Diphosphorus tetroxide†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††† ††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

37. ††† H2SO4(aq)†††††††††††††† Acid†††††††††††††††††††† Sulphuric acid††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

38. ††† H2Cr2O7(aq)†††††† †† Acid††††† †††††††††††††† Dichromic acid††††††††† †††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

39. ††† H2Cr2O7(l)†††††††††††† covalent nonacid Hydrogen dichromate†††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

40.†††† Ca(OH)2 . 5H2O††† Base†††††††††††††††††††† Calcium hydroxide pentahydrate†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††

 

41. ††† HBr(aq)††††††††††††††††† Acid†††††††††††††††††††† Hydrobromic acid†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

 

42. ††† Calculate the average atomic mass for neon if there are three naturally occurring isotopes and they are:

 

20Nemass = 19.9924404 amuabundance = ††††† 90.92 %

21Nemass = 20.993849 amuabundance = ††††††††††††††††† 0.2570 %

22Nemass = 21.991385 amuabundance = ††††††††††††††††† 8.820 %.

††††††††† Show some work if you want some marks. Round to an appropriate number of sig ††††††††† figs.††

 

††††††††† 0.9092(19.9924404) + 0.002570(20.993849) + 0.08829(21.991385) = 20.17 amu

 

Ca(OH)2          calcium hydroxide                  NH4OH           ammonium hydroxide                                   

 

CH3OH            methanol                                C12H22O11         sucrose                                                          

 

 

HCl                 hydrochloric acid                    PI3                   phosphorus triiodide                         

 

 

K2SO4             potassium sulphate                RbOH              rubidium hydroxide

 

 

H3PO4             phosphoric acid                      NaOH              sodium hydroxide                                          

 

 

CaCl2                 calcium chloride                     Li2SO4                 lithium sulphate                     

 

 

SiO2                silicon dioxide                        BaF2                barium fluoride

           

                                                                       

BCl5                boron pentachloride              CH3COOH      acetic acid     

 

 

H2CO3             carbonic acid                          CsOH              cesium hydroxide                              

 

 

S2Cl2               disulphur dichloride               Fr2S                 francium sulphide                  

 

 

Fe2(SO4)3       iron (III) sulphide                   ZnCl2              zinc chloride

 

 

Co3(PO4)2       cobalt (II) phosphate             Ag2Cr2O7        silver dichromate         

 

 

Worksheet # 14†† Practice Test # 2

 

Balance each equation.

 

 

1.†††††† 2C16H34†††††††† +49O2†††††† ††† 32CO2††††††† +†††††† 34H2O

 

2. ††††† 2Ga††† +†† 3H2SO4†† †††††† †††† 3H2 +†††† 1Ga2(SO4)3

 

 

Write a balanced equation including phase symbols.

 

3. ††††† Solid carbon reacts with chlorine gas to produce liquid tetracarbon decachloride.

 

††††††††† 4C(s)††† +5Cl2(g)†† C4Cl10(l)

 

 

 

Write chemical formulas for each ionic or molecular compound.

 

 

4. ††††† Strontium sulphide†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† SrS†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

5. ††††† triphosphorous hexoxide†††††††††††††††††††††††††† P3O6†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

6.†††† Osmium IV sulphide†††††††††††††††††††††††† OsS2†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

Name each chemical formula

 

 

7. ††††† Sn(CO3)2.5H2O††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Tin IV carbonate pentahydrate††††† †††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

8. ††††† Si3F8††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Trisilicon octafluoride††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

9. ††††† NaHCO3††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Sodium bicarbonate†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††

 

Classify the following as acids, bases, salts, and molecular non-acids. Name each.

 

 

10. ††† Sn(SO4)2††††††††††††††††††††††† Salt††††††††††††††††††††† Tin IV sulphate†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

11. ††† Ca(OH)2†††††††††††††††††††††††† Base†††††††††††††††††† Calcium hydroxide††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

12. ††† CH3COOH†††††††††††††††††††† Acid†††††††††††††††††††† Acetic Acid ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††

 

 

13. ††† S2O5†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Molecular††††††††††† Disulphur pentoxide††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

 

Round off each measured number to three significant figures.

 

14. ††† 0.0056349†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 0.00563

 

15. ††† 539663††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 540000 ††††† or†† 5.40x105

 

 

Add or subtract the measured quantities.

 

16. ††† 153.267+0.53493†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 153.802†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††

 

 

17†††††( 4.5631x1024†) ( 2.36†† x†† 10- 23†)††††††††††††††††††† 108††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

 

Simplify the following rounding to the correct number of significant figures.

 

 

 

18. ††† (5.6 x 10 -24)(5.37894x 10-25)(6.532†† x 1015)†††††††††††† =†††††††††††††††† 1.9x10-67

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††††††† (2.059378 x 1024)(5.23x1022)(9.37894x 10-13)

 

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Use unit analysis and the conversion factors to perform the following conversions:

 

2.210 lb=1.000 kg†††††††††††††† 14 lb= 1 stone (defined)††††††††

2000 lb†† =1 ton (defined)††††† 1.61 km†† =†† 1.00 mile††

4.54 L=1.00 gallon††††††††††††† 16 oz=1 lb (defined)

 

 

19. ††† 236 oz to stone

 

 ††††††††††††††††† 236 ozx††††††††††††† 1 lb†† †† x††††††††††††† 1 stone††††††† =†††††† 1.05 stone

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 16 oz †††††††††††††††† 14 lb

 

 

 

20. ††† 8.53 stone to oz

 

 ††††††††††††††††† 8.53 stonex††††††† 14 lb †† x†††† 16 oz =†††††† 1.9x103oz

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1 stone††††††† 1 lb

 

 

 

21. ††† 25.6 mi/h to km/s

 

 ††††††††††††††††† 25.6 mi†† x 1.61 km†††††† x††† 1 h††††††††††††† =†††††† 0.0114 km/s

 ††††††††††††††††† ††††††† h†††††††† 1.00 mi†††††††††††††††† 3600s

 

 

 

State the model of the atom is best described by each statement below.

 

22.†† First model to account for The Law of Conservation of Mass. †††††††††††††††† Dalton†††††††

 

23. ††† The first theory to explain the emission of photons. ††††††††††††††††††††††           Bohr††††††††††

 

24.†† First model to account for positive and negative charges. †††††††††††††††††††††††† Thomson†††

 

25.†† First model to account for the wave properties of electrons. ††††††††††           Quantum††

 

26.†† First model to include a small dense nucleus. †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††          Rutherford

 

27. ††† Describes the atom as a small dense nucleus surrounded with electrons, which are not in orbitals.††††† Rutherford†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

28. ††† Describes the atom as a small dense nucleus surrounded with electrons, which are in spherical orbitals.Bohr†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

29. ††† Describes the atom as a spherical atom that is indestructible and combines in simple whole number ratios to form compounds.††††††††††† Dalton†††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

30. ††† Describes electrons as being contained in a complex 3D orbitals as negative clouds of vibrational energy. Quantum††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

31. ††† Non-scientific theory that delayed modern theories of the atom for 1800 years and was shown to be incorrect. Aristotleís

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

 

What did the evidence tell us about the nature of the atom?

 

32. ††† 99 % of alphas in the gold foil experiment were completely un-deflected.†††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††††††† Most of the atom is empty space.

 

33. ††† 1 % of alphas in the gold foil experiment were radically deflected.†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††††††† There is a small dense positive nucleus.

 

34. ††† Flame spectroscopy of an element produces an emission spectrum consisting of 4 photons.†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††††††† Electrons are in orbitals

 

35.†††† A beam of negative particles is produced in a Crookeís tube.

 

††††††††† There are electrons.††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

36. ††† There are five naturally occurring isotopes of Germanium. Complete the chart to show the number of protons neutrons and electrons.

††††††††††††††††††

†††††††††††††††††† protons†††††† neutrons†††† electrons†††† At. Mass†††† Abundance

 

70Ge††††††††††† 32†††††††††††††† 38†††††††††††††† 32†††††††††††††† 69.92428††† 20.52%

 

72Ge††††††††††† 32†††††††††††††† 40†††††††††††††† 32†††††††††††††† 71.92174††† 27.43%

 

73Ge††††††††††† 32†††††††††††††† 41†††††††††††††† 32†††††††††††††† 72.9234††††† 7.760%

 

74Ge††††††††††† 32†††††††††††††† 42†††††††††††††† 32†††††††††††††† 73.92115††† 36.54%

 

76Ge††††††††††† 32†††††††††††††† 44†††††††††††††† 32†††††††††††††† 75.9214††††† 7.760%

 

37. ††† Calculate the average atomic mass of Germanium. Show some work if you want some marks. Round to an appropriate number of significant figs.

 

 

0.2052(69.92428)+0.2743(71.92174)+.07760(72.9234)+0.3654(73.92115)+.07760(75.9214)=72.64 amu

 

 

38. ††† Write the quantum electron configurations for the following atoms or ions.

 

 

39. ††† F ††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1s22s22p5††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

40. ††† Ga††††††††††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p1†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

41. ††† Br-††††††††††††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

42. ††† Rb+ ††††††††††††††††††††† 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

Determine the element that has the following electron configuration.

 

43.†††† 1s22s22p63s2†††††††††††††††††† Mg†††

 

 

 

Determine a cation that has the following electron configuration.

 

44. ††† 1s22s22p63s23p6††††† †††††††††††††††† K+†††††††††††††† Ca2+†††††††††††††††††† Ga3+†††††††††††

 

Determine an anion that has the following electron configuration.

 

45. ††† 1s22s22p63s23p6††††† ††††††            P3-†††††††††††† S2-†††††††††††††† Cl-†††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††

 

Complete the following chart.

 

Symbol††††† p††††† †††††††††† e††††††† †† †††††† n††††††† valance el.†† stable/unstable†††††††† atom/cation/anion

 

46. ††† Na†† 11†††††††††††††† 11†††††††††††††† 12†††††††††††††† 1††††††† unstable†††††††††††††††††††††††† atom

 

47. ††† P-3†† 15†††††††††††††† 18†††††††††††††† 16†††††††††††††† 8††††††† stable†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† anion

 

48. ††† Xe††† 54†††††††††††††† 54†††††††††††††† 77†††††††††††††† 8††††††† stable†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† atom†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††

49. ††† Sr+2 38†††††††††††††† 36†††††††††††††† 50†††††††††††††† 8††††††† stable†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† cation

 

 

Name and classify each compound as an acid, molecular, salt, or base.

 

50.†††† CuSO4(aq)††††††††††††† Salt†††††††††††††††††††††      Copper II sulphate†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

51.†††† P2O4(s)†††††††††††††††††† Molecular†††††††††††      Diphosphorus tetroxide†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

52. ††† H2SO4(aq)†††††††††††††† Acid††††††††††††††††††††      Sulphuric acid††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††

 

53. ††† H2CO3(aq)††††††††††††† Acid††††††††††††††††††††      Carbonic acid††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††

 

54. ††† H2CO3(l)††††††††††††††† Nonacid Covalent †††Hydrogen carbonate††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

55.†††† Ba(OH)2. 2H2O†††† Base††††††††††††††††††††       Barium hydroxide dihydrate†††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

56. ††† HF(aq)††††††††††††††††††† Acid††††††††††††††††††††       Hydrofluoric acid†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††

 

 

Write structural diagrams and electron-dot diagrams for each.

 

57.†††† CCl4

 

††††††††††††   ..

††††††††††† : Cl :

††††† ..†††††† ..††† ..

†† :Cl׃ C ׃ Cl :

††††† ..†††††† ..††† ..††

††††††††††† : Cl :

†††††††††††††† ..

 

 

 

58.†††† S2

 

†††††††† ..††††† ..

†††††† : S : : S :

 

 

 

59.†††† NH3

 

†††††††††† ..†††

†††† H : N : H

††††††††††† ..

†††††††††† H

††††††††††

 

 

 

60.†††† CO2

 

 

 ††††† ..†††††††††††††† ..

††† : O : : C : : O :

 

 

 

Write electron-dot diagrams for each.

 

 

61.†††† NaCl

 

†††††† .. ††††††††††††††† ††††..†††††

[ : Na : ]+††† [ : Cl : ]-

††††† ..††††††††††††††††††††† ..

 

 

 

62.†††† SO42-

 

††††††††††† †††††††††††††2-

†††††††††††† ..

††††††††† : O :

†††††† ..††† ..††† ..

†††† : O : S : O :

†††††† ..††† ..††† ..

††††††††† : O :

 †††††††††††††† ..

 

 

 

 

63.†††† Na3PO4

 

 

 

 

64.†††† NO3-

 

           †††††† ..†††††††††† ..††††††††     -

†††† : O : N :: O :

†††††† ..†††† ..

†††††††††† : O :

††††††††††††† ..

 

 

 

 

65.†††† NH4+

 

 

 

 

66.†††† IO4-†††††††††††††

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††       -

†††††††††††† ..

††††††††† : O :

†††††..††† ..††† ..

†††† : O : I: O :

††††††† ..†† ..††† ..

††††††††† : O :

†††† ..