Unit II

Atomic Theory

Worksheets

 

 

Lesson            Date                Topic                                                                                      WS #

 

1.                                             Early Atomic Theory                                                              1

2.                                             Bohr Evidence                                                                        2

3.                                             Bohr Diagrams                                                                        3

4.                                             Quantum Theory                                                                      4

5.                                             Mass Spectrometer/ Elegant Universe-1                                 5

6.                                             Elegant Universe-2/Periodic Chem                                         6

7.                                             Ionic Theory                                                                            7

8.                                             Classifying Matter Lab                                                            8

9.                                             Classifying and Naming Formulas 1                                        9

10.                                           Classifying and Naming Formulas 2                                       10

11.                                           Electron Dot Diagram Structural Formula 1                           11

12.                                           Electron Dot Diagram 2                                                          12

13.                                           Practice Test 1                                                                        13

14.                                           Practice Test 2                                                                        14

15.                                           Test                                                                 

 

 

Worksheet # 1               Early Atomic Theory

 

Briefly describe each atomic theory listed below.  Include a diagram.

 

1.       The Four-Element Theory

 

         

              The Four Element Theory

           

          (a) evidence                                                 (b) explanation within theory

 

          No evidence                                                Nonscientific Theory

 

 

                  

 

2.       Dalton’s Atomic Theory

 

         

         

          (a) Evidence                                                         (b) Explanation within theory

 

          Conservation of mass                                          Atoms are indestructible

 

          Law of Constant composition                             Elements combine in simple ratios 

 

 

 

 

3.       The Thompson Atom

 

 

         

          (a) Evidence                                                         (b) Explanation within theory

 

          Electrical Nature of Matter                                Positive and negative particles

 

 

 

Worksheet # 2               Early Atomic Theory

 

 

1.       The Rutherford Atom

 

 

         

          (a) Evidence                                                         (b) Explanation within theory

 

          A few alphas are radically deflected                   Small dense nucleus

 

          Most alphas are not deflected                             Most of atom is empty space

         

 

 

 

2.       The Bohr Atom

 

 

 

         

          The Bohr Atom

           

          (a) evidence                                                 (b) explanation within theory

 

          Line spectrum of discharge tubes             Electrons are in orbitals

 

 

 

 

 

Worksheet # 3               Bohr Diagram

         

 

 

Draw Bohr atomic diagrams for the following atoms.  Be sure to include protons, neutrons and electrons.

 

1.       Oxygen                                    7.       Calcium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.       Silver                                       8.       Barium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.       Cs                                            9.       I

 

 

 

cs

 

 

4.       Na                                                     10.     V

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.       Cl-                                                     11.     Al3+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Se2-                                                     12.     Ca2+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                          

 

 

Worksheet #4                Quantum Mechanics

 

1.       What is the main difference between the Bohr Theory of the atom and the Quantum Mechanical Theory?

 

          Electrons are waves in Quantum Theory and particles in the Bohr Theory.

 

 

 

2.       How many electrons will fill the smallest orbital in quantum mechanical theory?

 

          Two

 

 

3.       How is a 3s orbital different than a 2s orbital in terms of shape and distance from the nucleus?

 

 

          They are both spherical in shape but the 3s is further from the nucleus.        

 

 

 

 

 

4.       Explain what happens to the energy when an electron falls from a 3s orbital to a 2s orbital.

 

          Energy is emitted in the form of a photon of light with energy corresponding to the difference between the two     orbitals.

 

 

Use your Quantum Periodic Table to write quantum electron configurations for each element below.

 

5.       F       1s22s22p5

 

6.       K       1s22s22p63s23p64s1

 

7.       C       1s22s22p2

 

8.       Kr     1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p6

 

9.       S       1s22s22p63s23p4

 

10.     Rb     1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p65s1

 

11.     Co     1s22s22p63s2 3p63d74s2

 

12.     P       1s22s22p63s2 3p3

 

13.     Ca     1s22s22p63s2 3p64s2

 

14.     Al      1s22s22p63s2 3p1

 

15.     Ag     1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p64d95s2

 

16.     1s22s22p63s1                                                                                     Na

 

17.     1s22s22p63s23p5                                                                                Cl

 

18.     1s22s22p63s23p63d94s2                                                                      Cu

 

19.     1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p5                                               I

 

20.     1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d104f145s25p66s2                                    Ba

 

 

 

21.             Give the formula of four chemical species that are isoelectronic (same electron configuration) as Ar.

 

 

S2-               P3-                         Cl-               K+                         Ca2+

 

 

 

Worksheet # 5               Mass Spectrometry

 

Calculate the average atomic mass for each element.  Round off to the correct number of sig figs.  Write down the atomic mass from the periodic table rounded off to the same number of sig figs.

 

Isotope       Mass                    % Abundance                Average Mass                Atomic Mass (table)   

 

1.               

 

14N              14.0030744           99.6340                        14.0067 amu                 14.0 amu

15N              15.000108            0.366001             

 

          0.996340(14.0030744)  +  0.00366001(15.000108)  =  14.0067 amu

 

 

 

 

2.

20Ne            19.992404            90.92                             20.11 amu                       20.2 amu

21Ne            20.993849            0.257                                                         

22Ne            21.991385            8.82                                                                                        

 

          0.9092(19.992404)  +  0.00257(20.993849)  +  0.0882(21.991385)  =  20.2 amu

 

 

 

3.

46Ti             45.952633            7.93                               47.9 amu             47.9 amu

47Ti             46.95176              7.28  

48Ti             47.947948            73.94                            

49Ti             48.947867            5.51

50Ti             49.944789            5.34

 

          You will lose marks if you don’t show the work!

 

 

4.

54Fe             53.93962    5.8202                                     55.847 amu                   55.8 amu

56Fe             55.93493    91.660                                                                          

57Fe             56.93539    2.1901

58Fe             57.93327    0.33001

 

          You will lose marks if you don’t show the work!

 

 5.      Silver has two common isotopes. One is 106.90508 amu and 51.35 % and the other is 48.65 %.  If the average atomic mass is 107.9730 amu, what is the atomic mass of the other isotope?

 

 

106.90508 (.5135) +  X  (0.4865)   =  107.9730 amu   

NOW SOLVE FOR X

 

109.1 amu

 

6.                 Copper has two common isotopes. One is 62.92959 amu and 69.09 % and the other is 30.91 %.  If the average atomic mass is 63.5472 amu, what is the atomic mass of the other isotope.

 

62.92959 (.6909) +  X  (0.3091)   =  63.5472 amu   

NOW SOLVE FOR X

 

64.93 amu

 

                  

 

7.       Complete the chart below.

 

 

protons

electrons

neutrons

28Si

14

14

14

29Si

14

14

15

30Si

14

14

16

 

 

8.       Write a quantum electron configuration for each of the following.

 

          a) Ne                    1s22s22p6

 

          b) Mg

 

          c) Ti            1s22s22p63s2 3p63d24s2

 

          d) Cr

 

          e) Sr            1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p65s2

 

          f) Ag

 

          g) Br           1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p5

 

 

9.       What was the first atomic theory to account for the Law of Conservation of Mass?

          Explain how the theory accomplished this.

 

          Dalton.                          Atoms are indestructible.

 

 

 

10.     What was the first atomic theory to account for electromagnetic radiation (light)?

          Explain how the theory accomplished this.

 

 

          Bohr Theory.                Electrons are in orbitals.

 

 

11.     What was the first atomic theory to account for the small, dense nucleus?

          Explain how the theory accomplished this.

 

 

          Rutherford Atom.        A few alpha particles were radically deflected.

 

 

 

12.     What was the first atomic theory to have a wave theory for the electron?

          Explain how the theory accomplished this.

 

          Quantum Theory.        Electrons vibrate around the nucleus in 3 dimensional wavelike orbitals.

 

 

 

13.     What was the first atomic theory to account for positive and negative charges in matter?  Explain how the theory           accomplished this.

 

          Thomson Atom. The matter in the atom was positive with negative particles throughout.

 

 

Worksheet # 6               Periodic Chemistry

 

1.       Define the following:

 

a)       Oxidation                Loss of electrons

 

 

b)      Reduction               Gain of electrons

 

 

c)       Anion                     Negative ion

 

 

d)      Cation                     Positive ion

 

 

e)       Atom                     Neutral particle of an element

 

 

f)       Chemical family     Column on Periodic Table

 

 

g)       Period                   Row on Periodic Table

 

 

 

2.       Why are noble gases stable?    Full outer or valence shells

 

 

 

3.       Why are non-noble gases un-stable or reactive?  Incomplete outer or valence shells

 

 

 

 

4.       Draw Bohr diagrams for the following chemical species.

 

a)       He                                            b)      K

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c)       K+                                            d)      S2-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

e)       P3-                                            f)       Li+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.       Fill in the chart below.

 

symbol

atom,

cation or

anion

protons

neutrons

electrons

valence electrons

stable or reactive?

 

Mg2+

 

cation

 

12

 

12

 

10

 

8

 

stable

 

Mg

 

atom

 

12

 

12

 

12

 

2

 

unstable

 

F

 

atom

 

9

 

10

 

9

 

7

 

unstable

 

F-

 

anion

 

9

 

10

 

10

 

8

 

stable

 

Ne

 

atom

 

10

 

10

 

10

 

8

 

stable

 

C

 

atom

 

6

 

6

 

6

 

4

 

unstable

 

Be

 

atom

 

4

 

5

 

4

 

2

 

unstable

 

Be2+

 

cation

 

4

 

5

 

2

 

2

 

stable

 

N3-

 

anion

 

7

 

7

 

10

 

8

 

stable

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Worksheet # 7               Ionic Chemistry

 

1.

symbol

atom,

cation or

anion

protons

neutrons

electrons

valence electrons

stable or reactive?

 

Ga

 

Atom

 

31

 

39

 

31

 

3

 

Reactive

 

Ga3+

 

Cation

 

31

 

39

 

28

 

18

 

Stable

 

Br

 

Atom

 

35

 

45

 

35

 

7

 

Unstable

 

Br-

 

Anion

 

35

 

45

 

36

 

8

 

Stable

 

Kr

 

Atom

 

36

 

48

 

36

 

8

 

Stable

 

Ca

 

Atom

 

20

 

20

 

20

 

2

 

Unstable

 

Ca2+

 

Cation

 

20

 

20

 

18

 

8

 

Stable

 

P

 

Atom

 

15

 

16

 

15

 

5

 

Unstable

 

P3-

 

Anion

 

15

 

16

 

18

 

8

 

Stable

 

2.       What happens to protons, electrons and neutrons as you move form left to right within a row on the periodic table?

 

 

          Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons all increase.

 

 

3.       Write half-reactions to show how each atom forms an ion. Label each as oxidation     or reduction. The first two are done for you.

 

a)       K            K+     +       1e-                         oxidation

 

b)      N2      +       6e-           2N3-                      reduction

 

c)       P       +       3e-           P3-                         reduction

         

d)      O2     +       4e-           2O2-                   reduction

 

e)       Ca           Ca2+    +   2e-                       oxidation

 

f)       Br2       +       2e-           2Br-                 reduction

 

g)       I2            +       2e-           2I-                  reduction

 

h)      Al            Al3+    +   3e-                         oxidation

 

i)       Ba           Ba2+    +   2e-                        oxidation

 

j)       Cs          Cs+    +       1e-                          oxidation

 

k)      Mg          Mg2+    +   2e-                      oxidation

 

l)       Zn           Zn2+    +   2e-                        oxidation

 

m)     Ga           Ga3+    +   3e-                       oxidation

 

n)      Cl2        +       2e-           2Cl-                  reduction

 

o)      F2          +       2e-           2F-                   reduction

 

 

4.       Describe five properties of:    

          a) Metals

 

          Shiny                   Conductors                   Malleable             Ductile        Lose electrons          Left side of periodic table

 

          b) Non-metals

 

          Dull            Nonconductors             Brittle                   Gain electrons               Right side of periodic table

 

 

5.       Draw Bohr diagrams for each of the following.

 

          a) Na                                                 b) Na+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         

 

 

 

 

 

          c) O                                                   d) O2-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          e) Ca                                                 f) Ca2+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Worksheet # 8

 

1.       Complete the table.

 

 

 

 

Salt

 

Base

 

Acid

Covalent Nonacid

 

Litmus

 

Neutral

 

Blue

 

Red

 

Neutral

 

Conductivity

 

Good

 

Good

 

Good

 

Non

 

 

2.       Put each formula into the table below.

 

Ca(OH)2                         NH4OH                CH3OH                 C12H24O11

 

HCl                                PI3                        K2SO4                  RbOH

 

H3PO4                            NaOH                  CaCl2                         Li2SO4

 

H2SO3                            BaF2                     BCl5                     CH3COOH

 

H2CO3                            CsOH                  S2Cl2                     Fr2S

 

 

 

Salt

 

Base

 

Acid

 

Covalent Nonacid

 

K2SO4

 

Ca(OH)2

 

HCl

 

CH3OH

 

CaCl2

 

NH4OH

 

H3PO4

 

C12H24O11

 

Li2SO4

 

RbOH

 

H2SO3

 

PI3

 

BaF2

 

NaOH

 

CH3COOH

 

BCl5

 

Fr2S

 

CsOH

 

H2CO3

 

S2Cl2

 

 

3.       Draw Bohr diagrams for each of the following.

          a) K+                                                           b) P3-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.       Write half-reactions to show how each atom forms an ion. Label each as oxidation or reduction. The first two are done for you.

 

a)      Ca          Ca2+  +       2e-                         oxidation

 

b)      O2     +       4e-           2O2-                      reduction

 

c)       I2       +       2e-           2I-                    reduction

         

d)      N2      +       6e-           2N3-                     reduction

 

e)       Cs          Cs+    +       e-                      oxidation

 

f)       Ba          Ba2+  +       2e-                    oxidation

 

g)      Al      →      Al3+   +       3e-                     oxidation

 

h)      F2 +   2e-     →      2F-                             reduction

 

i)       H2     →      2H+      +      2e-                    oxidation

 

j)       Na+      +   1e-             Na(s)                     reduction

 

k)      N3-           N2      +       6e-                        oxidation

 

l)       Ca2+    +   2e-   →      Ca                          reduction

 

m)     Ba2+ +   2e-         Ba                            reduction

 

 

  

 

Worksheet # 9

 

1.       Complete the following table by classifying and naming each compound.

 

 

Formula

 

Classification

 

Name

 

CuS(s)

 

Salt

 

Copper II sulphide

 

H3PO4(s)

 

covalent nonacid (acids must be aq)

 

Hydrogen phosphate

 

P2O5(s)

 

Nonacid

 

Diphosphorus pentoxide

 

NH4OH(s)

 

Base

 

Ammonium hydroxide

 

Al2O3(s)

 

Salt

 

Aluminum oxide

 

MgSO4(s)

 

Salt

 

Magnesium sulphate

 

HCl(g)

 

covalent nonacid (acids must be aq)

 

Hydrogen chloride

 

HCl(aq)

 

Acid

 

Hydrochloric acid

 

H2SO4(l)

 

covalent nonacid (acids must be aq)

 

Hydrogen sulphate

 

H2SO4(aq)

 

Acid

 

Sulphuric acid

 

NI3(s)

 

Nonacid

 

Nitrogen triiodide

 

N3Cl3(s)

 

Nonacid

 

Trinitrogen trichloride

 

CO(g)

 

Nonacid

 

Carbon monoxide

 

K2CrO4(s)

 

Salt

 

Potassium chromate

 

H2Cr2O7(aq)

 

Acid

 

Dichromic acid

 

H2O(l)

 

Nonacid

 

Water

 

CrCO3(s)

 

Salt

 

Chromium II carbonate

 

HBr(g)

 

covalent nonacid (acids must be aq)

 

Hydrogen bromide

 

P3O5(s)

 

Nonacid

 

Triphosphorus pentoxide

 

 

 

Worksheet # 10

2.       Complete the following table by classifying and naming each compound.

 

 

Formula

 

Classification

 

Name

 

HI (aq)

 

Acid

 

Hydroiodic acid

 

(NH4)3PO4(s)

 

Salt

 

Ammonium phosphate

 

NCl3(l)

 

Nonacid

 

Nitrogen trichloride

 

Ba(OH)2(s)

 

Base

 

Barium hydroxide

 

Rb2SO4(s)

 

Salt

 

Rubidium sulphate

 

CuCl2(s)

 

Salt

 

Copper II chloride

 

Al2O3(aq)

 

Salt

 

Aluminum oxide

 

N3Cl3(aq)

 

Nonacid

 

Trinitrogen trichloride

 

CO(g)

 

Nonacid

 

carbon monoxide

 

H2SO3(aq)

 

Acid

 

Sulphurous acid

 

CuSO4 . 6H2O(aq)

 

Salt

 

Copper II sulphate hexahydrate

 

H3PO3(s)

 

covalent nonacid (acids must be aq)

 

Hydrogen phosphite

 

Mg3(PO4)2(aq)

 

Salt

 

Magnesium Phosphate

 

HCH3COO(aq)

 

Acid

 

Acetic Acid or Ethanoic acid

 

HF(aq)

 

Acid

 

Hydrofluoric acid

 

N2O5(aq)

 

Nonacid

 

Dinitrogen pentoxide

 

Na3PO4 . 5H2O(aq)

 

Salt

 

Sodium phosphate pentahydrate

 

Ni(NO3)3(aq)

 

Salt

 

Nickel III nitrate

 

SO(g)

 

Nonacid

 

Sulphur monoxide

 

 

Use your Quantum Periodic Table to write quantum electron configurations for each element below.

 

3.       Sr                1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p65s2                                        

 

4.       V                1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2                                         

 

5.       Mg              1s22s22p63s2

 

6.       P                 1s22s22p63s23p3

 

7.       Cr               1s22s22p63s23p63d44s2

 

 

 

 Pick the best answers.  Answers can be used more than once.

 

Answers:    Four Element Theory  

                   Dalton’s Atomic Theory

                   Thomson’s Atomic Theory

                   Rutherford’s Atomic Theory

                   Bohr’s Atomic Theory

                   Quantum Mechanical Theory

 

8.       Rutherford’s Atomic Theory          The 1st model of the atom to explain the gold foil experiment 

 

9.       Bohr’s Atomic Theory                     The 1st model to explain light

 

10.     Dalton’s Atomic Theory                  The 1st model to account for the Law of Constant Composition

 

11.     Rutherford’s Atomic Theory          The 1st model to have a small, dense nucleus

 

12.     Quantum Mechanical Theory         The 1st model to have an electron as a wave

 

13.     Four Element Theory                      Non-scientific Theory

 

14.     Thomson’s Atomic Theory              The 1st model to have electrons

 

15.     Dalton’s Atomic Theory                  The 1st model to account for the Law of Conservation of Mass

 

16.     Quantum Mechanical Theory         Modern theory of the atom

 

17.     Rutherford’s Atomic Theory          The 1st model to claim the atom is mainly “empty space”

 

Worksheet # 11             Electron Dot Diagrams

 

Draw structural and electron-dot diagrams for each.

 

Structural

Dot-Diagram

 

CH4

CH4

 CH4

 

CI4

            

CI4

       CI4dot

 

S2

 

 

   S2    

 

   S2

 

P2

 

 P2 Struc

 

P2-dot

 

C2Cl6

 

C2H6

               

C2H6dot

 

C2F4

C2F4

               

C2F4dot

 

 

NF3

 

NF3-Struc

NF3-Dot

 

CS2

 

CS2-struc

 

CS2-dot

 

 

N2Cl2

 

N2Cl2-struc

N2Cl2-dot

                 

 

HCN

 

 

HCN-struc

 

 

HCN-dot

 

CH4N2O

(symmetrical)

  

 CH4N2O-struc

CH4N2O-dot

 

C6H6

 

(cyclic)

benzene structure

 benzene dot

 

CF4

          

             ..

           : F :

      ..     ..    ..

   :  F  ׃ C ׃ F :

       ..     ..   ..

            : F :

              ..

 

N2Cl4

 

    Cl – N    N – Cl

             |        |

           Cl     Cl

 

      

 

NBr3

 

    Br – N – Br

             |

            Br

     ..     ..    ..

   : Br : N : Br :

     ..      ..    ..

          : Br :

             ..

 

N2

 

 

        N    N

 

 

      : N : : : N :

 

O2

 

 

         O = O

 

           ..      ..

        : O : : O :

 

I2

 

          I  -  I

 

      ..     ..

    : I  :  I :

       ..     ..

 

CO2

 

     O = C = O

      ..              ..

    : O : : C : : O :

 

 

COBr2

            Br

             |

     O = C

             |

            Br

                ..     

            : Br :

               ..

    : O : : C

                ..

             : Br :

                ..

 

 

CNCl2F

(symmetrical)

a

     

                       ..        

                    : Cl:    

      ..               ..

    : F :  C : : :N

      ..               ..

                    : Cl : 

                            ..

 

Name each compound

1.              CH3COOH(aq)       Acetic or ethanoic acid

2.              HBr(aq)                  Hydrobromic acid

3.              HF(g)                     Hydrogen fluoride

4.              HNO3(aq)               Nitric acid

5.              HClO4(aq)               Perchloric acid

Write the quantum electron configurations for the following.

6.              Cl-               1s22s22p63s23p6

7.              Sr2+             1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p6

8.              I                  1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p64d105p5

Write a dissociation equation for each to show how each ionizes in water.

9.       CH3COOH(l)                   H+(aq)    +    CH3COO-(aq)

10.     HNO3(l)                       H+(aq)    +    NO3-(aq)

11.     Al2(SO4)3(s)                 2Al3+(aq)    +    3SO42-(aq)

12.     Co3(PO4)2(s)                3Co2+(aq)    +    2PO43-(aq)

Name each compound above.

13.     Hydrogen acetate

14.     Hydrogen nitrate

15.     Aluminum sulphate

16.     Cobalt II phosphate

17. Classify the following compounds.

 

NaOH                                        BaF2                            BCl5                     CH3COOH

 

H2CO3                            CsOH                   S2Cl2                     BaCl2

 

 

 

Salt

 

Base

 

Acid

 

Covalent Nonacid

BaF2

 

NaOH

CH3COOH

S2Cl2

BaCl2

 

CsOH

H2CO3

BCl5

 

 

 

Worksheet # 12             Electron Dot Diagrams

 

Draw structural and electron-dot diagrams for each.

 

 

ClO3-

 

 

  CiO3-

 

 

PO43-

 

            ..               3-

          : O :

       ..    ..   ..

     : O : P : O :

        ..    ..    ..

           : O :

             ..

 

 

 

 

IO3-

 

 

                       -

             ..

     : O : I : O :

             ..

           : O :

             ..

 

 

BrO3-

-

  

        ..     ..   ..

     : O :Br: O :

        ..    ..    ..

           : O :

              ..

 

 

 

 

CN-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NO3-

        -

       ..            ..

     : O : N :: O :

        ..     .. 

            : O :

               ..

 

 

 

 

SO42-

 

 

                         2-

             ..

          : O :

       ..    ..    ..

     : O : S : O :

        ..   ..    ..

          : O :

             ..

 

 

 

CaCO3

 

                      2+              

                        

        Ca          

    

        

     

 

 

 

 

 

Li2SO4

 

 

 

                     +              

                              

  2      Li          

    

                         2-

             ..

          : O :

       ..    ..    ..

     : O : S : O :

        ..   ..    ..

          : O :

             ..

 

 

 

 

CCl4

              ..

           : Cl :

      ..      ..     ..

   :  Cl  ׃ C ׃ Cl :

       ..      ..    ..

            : Cl :

               ..

 

 

NI3

 

 

 

         

       ..    ..    ..

    :  I  ׃ N ׃ I :

        ..   ..    ..

           : I :

             ..

 

 

NSCl

                             ..             ..

    : Cl : N : : S :

                                   ..             

 

 

NH4+

 

 

            H              +

             ..

      H : N : H

           ..    

            H

 

 

H3O+

 

                 

          

 

            

 

 

NaCl

 

 

   

            +                    

     ..                  ..  

  : Na :          : Cl :

     ..       ..

 

 

 

 

ClO3-

                      

     

 

 

 

Draw structural and electron-dot diagrams for each.

 

 

BrO4-

 

 

                                 3-

              ..

           : O :

       ..     ..   ..

     : O : Br : O :

             ..

           : O :

     ..

 

 

 

 

PO33-

                            3-

             ..

          : O :

       ..    ..   ..

     : O : P : O :

             ..

         

    

 

 

IO4-

 

 

                                       -

             ..

          : O :

       ..    ..   ..

     : O : I  : O :

        ..   ..    ..

          : O :

     ..

 

 

 

NO3-

             ..                -

          : O :

       ..    ..   ..

     : O : N : : O :

        .. 

 

 

HCN

 

 

 

 

                                  

    H : C : : : N :

 

 

 

SO32-

                             2-

              ..

           : O :

       ..     ..   ..

     : O : S : O :

        ..    ..    ..

         

 

 

 

 

CO32-

 

 

 

 

 

CaS

 

 

 

                  2+              

                         

     Ca          

    

2-

           ..           

         : S :      

           ..   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Na2SO4

 

 

 

 

                                         

                         +         

     2      Na           

               

              

                2-

       ..           

     : S :      

       ..   

 

 

 

NCl3

 

 

 

N2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O2

 

 

        ..      ..

      : O : : O :

      

 

 

 

Cl2

 

 

 

       ..      ..

    : Cl  : Cl :

       ..      ..

 

 

 

 

 

C2H6

 

 

 

C2H4

 

 

 

 

 

C2H2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         

          Draw electron dot diagrams for each ionic compound

 

 

 

LiCl

 

 

 

                         ..     

[  Li  ]+    [ :Cl: ]-

                         ..

 

 

Na2O

 

 


                         ..                

[ Na ]+     [ :O: ]2-  [ Na ]+

                         ..              

 

 

 

K2S

 

 

    

                      ..                 

[K ]+     [ : S : ]2-  [ K ]+

                      ..               

 

 

 

BaO

 

 

 

                         ..     

[ Ba ]2+    [ :O: ]2-

                          ..

 

 

GaH3

 

 

                   [ H: ]-    

                                  

[ H: ]-     [ Ga ]3+ [ H: ]-

                                   

 

Worksheet # 13   Practice Test # 1

 

1.       Classify as stable or reactive.

 

          Na               N                          Ne                        Cl-                        S2-               S3-               

          P                 P3-                        Ca              Ca2+            NaCl          N3-       

 

2.       Describe a metal and a nonmetal in terms of gaining or losing electrons.

 

          Metals lose electrons and nonmetals gain electrons.

 

 

3.       Why are noble gases always stable?

 

          Full outer shells

 

 

4.       Determine the number of valence electrons for: 

 

          Ca               2        Ca2+     8     Cl      7        Cl-       8

 

          O        6      O2-       8     Al      3

 

5.       Draw a Bohr diagram for

 

          Ca                                  Ca2+                               N                                    N3-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.       Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each. 

 

 

Protons

Neutrons

Electrons

S

16

16

16

S2-    

16

16

18

Al

13

14

13

Al3+  

13

14

10

42Ca

20

22

20

 

 

7.       Classify as ionic or covalent compounds.

 

          HCl                      CH3OH                H2O                      NH4OH                        

 

          NaCl                    MgSO4                 CoCl2                   H3PO4

 

          NH3                      P2O5                     Ba(OH)2

 

 

8.       Classify the above compounds into acids, non-acids, salts and bases.

 

          Acids                    H3PO4              HCl

 

          Bases                    NH4OH      Ba(OH)2

 

          Non-acids            H2O            NH3

 

          Salts                     MgSO4       NaCl

 

 

 

 

9.       Calculate the average atomic mass for magnesium using the following percentage abundance data.

 

                24Mg            78.70%       (24.00 amu)  

                25Mg            10.13%       (25.00 amu)   

                26Mg            11.17%       (26.00 amu)

 

          0.7870(24.00) + .1013(25.00)  +  .1117(26.00)  =  24.32 amu

 

 

 

10.     Write the formulas for each ionic compound.

 

          Magnesium chloride       MgCl2

 

          Silver phosphate            Ag3PO4

 

          Cobalt III oxide              Co2O3

 

          Zinc phosphate              Zn3(PO4)2

 

          Calcium nitride              Ca3N2

 

          Copper I nitrate             CuNO3

 

11.     Name each ionic compound.

 

          Fe2(SO4)3              iron III sulphate                     CoCl3                   col

 

          Na2O                    sodium oxide                          AgCl                                       

 

          Na3PO4                 sodium phosphate                  CaF2                    

 

          NH4OH                ammonium hydroxide           Ca(NO3)2          

 

          K2Cr2O7                potassium dichromate            MgCrO4      

 

12.     Name each covalent compound.

 

          P2O5                     diphosphorus pentoxide                N2O3                  dinitrogen trioxide      

 

          CO                       carbon monoxide                             CO2                 carbon dioxide         

 

          SO2                        sulphur dioxide                     P3O5            triphosphorus pentoxide                   

 

          C6H6                     hexacarbon hexahydride       H2SO4(l)       hydrogen sulphate

 

          HCl(l)                    hydrogen chloride                  HNO3(l)       hydrogen nitrate

 

          H2CrO4(aq)             chromic acid                           HF(aq)              hydrofluoric acid

 

          H3PO4(l)                hydrogen phosphate              H2CO3(aq)     carbonic acid

 

 

 

13.     Complete the chart below.

 

Protons

Neutrons

Electrons

Reactive or stable?

# of valence electrons

Li+

3

4

2

stable

2

S2-

16

16

18

stable

8

22Mg2+

12

10

10

stable

8

 

14.     Write dissociation equations showing how each salt or acid dissolves in water and

          forms ions. The first one is done for you.

 

          MgCl2              Mg2+    +    2Cl-

 

          FeCl3                Fe3+    +    3Cl-

 

          Co2(SO4)3         2Co3+    +    3SO42-

 

          HClO3               H+    +    ClO3-

 

          H2Cr2O7            2H+    +    Cr2O72-

 

16.     Name each acid: 

 

          HCl(aq)                            hydrochloric acid                                       HClO3(aq)                chloric acid

 

          HNO3(aq)               nitric acid                                         HBr(aq)                  hydrobromic acid

 

 

17.     Classify each as formula units or molecules.

 

          NaF                                                   H2O                              

 

          CH4                                                   NH4Cl      

 

Ionic compounds start with metals and have formula units.

Covalent compounds start with nonmetals and have molecules.

         

          CaSO4                                              CH3OH                        

 

          H2SO4

 

18.     Indicate the solutions that conduct electricity.

 

          NaCl(s)         solid                    NaCl(aq)                 

 

          Ca(OH)2(aq)                             HCl(aq)    

 

          NH4OH(aq)                               C6H12O6(aq)

 

 

19.     Consider the following electron configuration 1s22s22p6. Determine the element and

some ions that have the above electron configuration.

 

          Element                          Ne                  

 

          Cation                            Na+ or Mg2+                                                       

 

          Anion                                      F-      O2-     N3-

                                               

20.     Describe why NaCl(s) doesn’t conduct electricity.  Describe what happens to     

NaCl(s) when it is dissolved in water.  Why does it conduct electricity?

 

          The ions in NaCl(s) are not free to move and conduct electricity.

When it is dissolved in water, the NaCl dissociates into ions that conduct electricity.

NaCl(s)   Na+(aq)  +   Cl-(aq)

 

 

21.     Write the quantum electron configuration for each (1s22s2p.....)

 

          He               1s2                                           Ar     1s22s22p63s23p6

 

          Na                        1s22s22p63s1                             Na+     1s22s22p6

 

          Cl                1s22s22p63s23p5                       Cl-      1s22s22p63s23p6

 

          K                1s22s22p63s23p64s1                   K+       1s22s22p63s23p6

 

          Br               1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5       Br-     1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6

 

 

22.     What two particles make up most of the mass within an atom?   Protons and neutrons.

 

23.     I am an atom with 35p   40n.  Who am I?                               Br

 

24.     I am a cation with 56p    81n   &  54e.   Who am I?                         Ba2+

 

 

25.     Define isotopes.   Elements that have the same atomic number but different

atomic mass because of having different amounts of neutrons.

 

 

26.     In Rutherford’s Gold foil experiment some particles were completely

un-deflected and others were radically deflected. Describe the significance of each in terms of the structure of the atom.

 

          There is a small dense positive nucleus in the center of the atom with most of the mass.

 

 

 

27.     Define ionic and covalent bonding.

 

          Ionic bonding transfers an electron from the metal, which becomes a cation to the nonmetal,

which becomes the anion.

 

          Covalent bonding occurs between two nonmetals and involves shared electrons.

 

28.     How many valence electrons are in the calcium ion?

 

          8

 

29.     How many valence electrons are in the fluoride ion?

 

          8

 

30.     What is the name of the family that has and electron configuration of:

 

a)        s2p5                     Halogens                       

 

b)      s1                          Alkali Metals                              

 

c)       s2p2                      Carbon Family                     

 

 

 

 

 

31.     Consider the following electron configuration 1s22s22s22p63s23p6 . Determine the element and some ions that have the above         electron configuration. These are called isoelectronic.

 

          Element:               Ar                    

 

          Cations:                K+     Ca2+                                                 

 

          Anions:                 Cl-    S2-   N3-                                           

 

Draw electron dot diagrams for the following using brackets for ions. Write a dissociation equation first.

 

32.     NaCl          

                         ..     

[ Na ]+    [ :Cl: ]-

                        ..

 

 

 

33.     Li2O

                      ..              

[ Li ]+     [ :O: ]2-  [ Li ]+

                      ..             

 

 

34.     CaF2

     ..                               ..

[ :F: ]-     [ Ca ]2+  [ :F: ]-

    ..                                ..

 

 

                            

                            

 

Name and classify each compound as an acid, molecular, salt, or base.

 

35.     CuSO4(aq)              Salt                      Copper II sulphate                                                                                                                                                                                     

 

36.     P2O4(s)                   Molecular            Diphosphorus tetroxide                                                                                                                                                                                     

 

37.     H2SO4(aq)               Acid                     Sulphuric acid                                                                                                                                                               

 

38.     H2Cr2O7(aq)            Acid                     Dichromic acid                                                                                                                                                                       

 

39.     H2Cr2O7(l)             covalent nonacid   Hydrogen dichromate                                                                                                                                                                                         

 

40.     Ca(OH)2 . 5H2O    Base                     Calcium hydroxide pentahydrate                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

41.     HBr(aq)                  Acid                     Hydrobromic acid                                                                                                                   

 

 

 

42.     Calculate the average atomic mass for neon if there are three naturally occurring isotopes and they are:

 

20Ne  mass = 19.9924404 amu  abundance =       90.92 %

21Ne  mass = 20.993849 amu  abundance =                   0.2570 %

22Ne  mass = 21.991385 amu  abundance =                   8.820 %.

          Show some work if you want some marks. Round to an appropriate number of sig           figs.  

 

          0.9092(19.9924404) + 0.002570(20.993849) + 0.08829(21.991385) = 20.17 amu

 

Ca(OH)2          calcium hydroxide                  NH4OH           ammonium hydroxide                                   

CH3OH            methanol                                C12H22O11         sucrose                                                          

HCl                 hydrochloric acid                    PI3                   phosphorus triiodide                         

K2SO4             potassium sulphate                RbOH              rubidium hydroxide

H3PO4             phosphoric acid                      NaOH              sodium hydroxide                                          

CaCl2                 calcium chloride                     Li2SO4                 lithium sulphate                     

SiO2                silicon dioxide                        BaF2                barium fluoride

           

                                                                       

BCl5                boron pentachloride              CH3COOH      acetic acid     

H2CO3             carbonic acid                          CsOH              cesium hydroxide                              

S2Cl2               disulphur dichloride               Fr2S                 francium sulphide                  

Fe2(SO4)3       iron (III) sulphide                   ZnCl2              zinc chloride

Co3(PO4)2       cobalt (II) phosphate             Ag2Cr2O7        silver dichromate         

 

Worksheet # 14   Practice Test # 2

 

Balance each equation.

 

 

1.       2C16H34           +  49O2             32CO2        +       34H2O

 

2.       2Ga    +   3H2SO4               3H2  +       1Ga2(SO4)3

 

 

Write a balanced equation including phase symbols.

 

3.       Solid carbon reacts with chlorine gas to produce liquid tetracarbon decachloride.

 

          4C(s)    +  5Cl2(g)     C4Cl10(l)

 

 

 

Write chemical formulas for each ionic or molecular compound.

 

 

4.       Strontium sulphide                                     SrS                                         

 

 

5.       triphosphorous hexoxide                           P3O6                                       

 

 

6.       Osmium IV sulphide                         OsS2                                       

 

 

Name each chemical formula

 

 

7.       Sn(CO3)2.5H2O                                  Tin IV carbonate pentahydrate                                                              

 

 

8.       Si3F8                                                  Trisilicon octafluoride                                        

 

 

9.       NaHCO3                                            Sodium bicarbonate                                                    

 

Classify the following as acids, bases, salts, and molecular non-acids. Name each.

 

 

10.     Sn(SO4)2                        Salt                      Tin IV sulphate                                                                              

 

 

11.     Ca(OH)2                         Base                     Calcium hydroxide                                                                                   

 

 

12.     CH3COOH                     Acid                     Acetic Acid                                                                   

 

 

13.     S2O5                               Molecular            Disulphur pentoxide                                                              

 

 

 

Round off each measured number to three significant figures.

 

14.     0.0056349                               0.00563

 

15.     539663                                    540000       or   5.40  x  105

 

 

Add or subtract the measured quantities.

 

16.     153.267  +  0.53493                                             153.802                                                      

 

 

17     ( 4.5631  x  1024 ) ( 2.36   x   10- 23 )                    108                                  

 

 

 

Simplify the following rounding to the correct number of significant figures.

 

 

 

18.     (5.6 x 10 -24)  (5.37894  x 10-25)(6.532   x 1015)             =                 1.9  x  10-67

                                                                                       

          (2.059378 x 1024)(5.23  x  1022)(9.37894  x 10-13)

 

                                                                                                                  

Use unit analysis and the conversion factors to perform the following conversions:

 

2.210 lb  =  1.000 kg               14 lb  = 1 stone (defined)        

2000 lb   =  1 ton (defined)      1.61 km   =   1.00 mile  

4.54 L  =  1.00 gallon              16 oz  =  1 lb (defined)

 

 

19.     236 oz to stone

 

                   236 oz  x              1 lb      x              1 stone        =       1.05 stone

                                                16 oz                    14 lb

 

 

 

20.     8.53 stone to oz

 

                   8.53 stone  x        14 lb    x     16 oz =       1.9  x  103  oz

                                                1 stone          1 lb

 

 

 

21.     25.6 mi/h to km/s

 

                   25.6 mi   x 1.61 km       x      1 h              =       0.0114 km/s

                           h         1.00 mi                 3600s

 

 

 

State the model of the atom is best described by each statement below.

 

22.     First model to account for The Law of Conservation of Mass.                  Dalton       

 

23.     The first theory to explain the emission of photons.                                  Bohr          

 

24.     First model to account for positive and negative charges.                          Thomson   

 

25.     First model to account for the wave properties of electrons.                      Quantum  

 

26.     First model to include a small dense nucleus.                                            Rutherford

 

27.     Describes the atom as a small dense nucleus surrounded with electrons, which are not in orbitals.      Rutherford                                                         

28.     Describes the atom as a small dense nucleus surrounded with electrons, which are in spherical orbitals.Bohr                                       

29.     Describes the atom as a spherical atom that is indestructible and combines in simple whole number ratios to form compounds.            Dalton                         

 

30.     Describes electrons as being contained in a complex 3D orbitals as negative clouds of vibrational energy. Quantum                                                

31.     Non-scientific theory that delayed modern theories of the atom for 1800 years and was shown to be incorrect. Aristotle’s

                                                         

 

 

What did the evidence tell us about the nature of the atom?

 

32.     99 % of alphas in the gold foil experiment were completely un-deflected.                                                                                                 

          Most of the atom is empty space.

 

33.     1 % of alphas in the gold foil experiment were radically deflected.                                                                                                 

          There is a small dense positive nucleus.

 

34.     Flame spectroscopy of an element produces an emission spectrum consisting of 4 photons.                                                                       

          Electrons are in orbitals

 

35.     A beam of negative particles is produced in a Crooke’s tube.

 

          There are electrons.                                                                                            

 

36.     There are five naturally occurring isotopes of Germanium. Complete the chart to show the number of protons neutrons and electrons.

                  

                   protons       neutrons     electrons     At. Mass     Abundance

 

70Ge            32               38               32               69.92428    20.52%

 

72Ge            32               40               32               71.92174    27.43%

 

73Ge            32               41               32               72.9234      7.760%

 

74Ge            32               42               32               73.92115    36.54%

 

76Ge            32               44               32               75.9214      7.760%

 

37.     Calculate the average atomic mass of Germanium. Show some work if you want some marks. Round to an appropriate number of significant figs.

 

 

0.2052(69.92428)  +  0.2743(71.92174)  +  .07760(72.9234)  +  0.3654(73.92115)  +  .07760(75.9214)  =  72.64 amu

 

 

38.     Write the quantum electron configurations for the following atoms or ions.

 

 

39.     F                           1s22s22p5                                          

 

40.     Ga                        1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p1                                   

 

41.     Br-                        1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6                                   

 

42.     Rb+                       1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6                                   

 

Determine the element that has the following electron configuration.

 

43.     1s22s22p63s2                   Mg   

 

 

 

Determine a cation that has the following electron configuration.

 

44.     1s22s22p63s23p6                       K+               Ca2+                     Ga3+           

 

Determine an anion that has the following electron configuration.

 

45.     1s22s22p63s23p6                        P3-             S2-               Cl-                                 

 

Complete the following chart.

 

Symbol      p                 e                  n        valance el.   stable/unstable         atom/cation/anion

 

46.     Na     11               11               12               1        unstable                         atom

 

47.     P-3     15               18               16               8        stable                             anion

 

48.     Xe    54               54               77               8        stable                             atom                                                                                                           

 

49.     Sr+2  38               36               50               8        stable                             cation

 

 

Name and classify each compound as an acid, molecular, salt, or base.

 

50.     CuSO4(aq)              Salt                           Copper II sulphate                                                                     

 

51.     P2O4(s)                   Molecular                 Diphosphorus tetroxide                                                                      

 

52.     H2SO4(aq)               Acid                          Sulphuric acid                                                         

 

53.     H2CO3(aq)              Acid                          Carbonic acid                                                                        

 

54.     H2CO3(l)                Nonacid Covalent    Hydrogen carbonate                                                                       

 

55.     Ba(OH)2. 2H2O     Base                           Barium hydroxide dihydrate                                                                      

 

56.     HF(aq)                    Acid                           Hydrofluoric acid                                                           

 

 

Write structural diagrams and electron-dot diagrams for each.

 

57.     CCl4

 

               ..

            : Cl :

      ..       ..    ..

   :  Cl  ׃ C ׃ Cl :

      ..       ..    ..  

            : Cl :

               ..

 

 

 

58.     S2

 

         ..      ..

       : S : : S :

 

 

 

59.     NH3

 

           ..   

     H : N : H

            .. 

           H

          

 

 

 

60.     CO2

 

 

       ..               ..

    : O : : C : : O :

 

 

 

Write electron-dot diagrams for each.

 

 

61.     NaCl

 

       ..                     ..     

[ : Na : ]+    [ : Cl : ]-

      ..                      ..

 

 

 

62.     SO42-

 

                         2-

             ..

          : O :

       ..    ..    ..

     : O : S : O :

       ..    ..    ..

          : O :

                ..

 

 

 

 

63.     Na3PO4

 

 

 

 

64.     NO3-

 

                  ..           ..             -

     : O : N :: O :

       ..     .. 

           : O :

              ..

 

 

 

 

65.     NH4+

 

 

 

 

66.     IO4-             

                                     -

             ..

          : O :

       ..    ..    ..

     : O : I  : O :

        ..   ..    ..

          : O :

     ..