Atomic Theory Unit II

Lesson                        Date                Topic                                                                           WS #


1.                                             Early Atomic Theory                                                     1

2.                                             Bohr Evidence                                                              1

3.                                             Bohr Diagrams                                                 1

4.                                             Quantum Theory                                                           2

5.                                             Mass Spectrometer/ Elegant Universe-1                        3

6.                                             Elegant Universe-2/Periodic Chem                                4

7.                                             Periodic Chemistry                                                       5

8.                                             Classifying Matter Lab/ Elegant Universe-3                  

9.                                             Classifying and Naming Formulas 1                               6

10.                                           Classifying and Naming Formulas 2                               7

11.                                           Electron Dot Diagram Structural Formula 1                   8

12.                                           Electron Dot Diagram 2                                                9

13.                                           Practice Test 1                                                             10

14.                                           Practice Test 2                                                             11










Worksheet # 1            Early Atomic Theory


Briefly describe each atomic theory listed below.  Include a diagram.


1.         The Four-Element Theory






2.         Dalton’s Atomic Theory






3.         The Thompson Atom







4.         The Rutherford Atom







5.         The Bohr Atom







For each of the above, give some evidence that led to the atomic model.  Briefly explain how each evidence is accounted for in the atomic theory.


6.         The Four Element Theory


            (a) evidence                                                      (b) explanation within theory





7.         Dalton’s Atomic Theory

            (a) evidence                                                      (b) explanation within theory





8.         The Thompson Atom

            (a) evidence                                                      (b) explanation within theory





9.         The Rutherford Atom

            (a) evidence                                                      (b) explanation within theory







10.       The Bohr Atom

            (a) evidence                                                      (b) explanation within theory






Draw Bohr atomic diagrams for the following atoms.  Be sure to include protons, neutrons and electrons.


11.       Oxygen                                                12.       Calcium







13.       Silver                                                    14.       Barium







15.       Cs                                                        16.       I

17.       Na                                                                   18.       V






19.       Cl-                                                                    20.       Al3+






21.       Se2-                                                                  22.       Ca2+






Worksheet #2             Quantum Mechanics


1.         What is the main difference between the Bohr theory of the atom and the           Quantum Mechanical Theory?








2.         How many electrons will fill the smallest orbital in quantum mechanical theory?








3.         How is a 3s orbital different than a 2s orbital in terms of shape and distance from           the nucleus?







4.         Explain what happens to the energy when an electron falls from a 3s orbital to a             2s orbital.




Use your Quantum Periodic Table to write quantum electron configurations for each element below.


5.         F


6.         K


7.         C


8.         Kr


9.         S         


10.       Rb


11.       Co


12.       P


13.       Ca


14.       Al


15.       Ag


16.       1s22s22p63s1                                                                                                    


17.       1s22s22p63s23p5                                                                                              


18.       1s22s22p63s23p63d94s2                                                            


19.       1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p5                                                 


20.       1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p66s2                                             





21.       Give the formula of four chemical species that are isoelectronic (same electron configuration) as Ar.



Worksheet #3             Mass Spectrometry


Calculate the average atomic mass for each element.  Round off to the correct number of sig figs.  Write down the atomic mass from the periodic table rounded off to the same number of sig figs. Show all your work.


Isotope             Mass                % Abundance               Average Mass      Atomic Mass(table)




14N                   14.0030744     99.6340                                                                                  

15N                   15.000108       0.366001                    





20Ne                 19.992404       90.92                                                                                      

21Ne                 20.993849       0.257                                                                          

22Ne                 21.991385       8.82                                                                                                                




46Ti                   45.952633       7.93

47Ti                   46.95176         7.28    

48Ti                   47.947948       73.94                                                                                      

49Ti                   48.947867       5.51

50Ti                   49.944789       5.34





54Fe                  53.93962         5.8202

56Fe                  55.93493         91.660                                                                                    

57Fe                  56.93539         2.1901

58Fe                  57.93327         0.33001




5.         Silver has two common isotopes. One is 106.90508 amu and 51.35 % and the other is 48.65 %.  If the average atomic mass is 107.9730 amu, what is the atomic mass of the other isotope.





6.         Copper has two common isotopes. One is 62.92959 amu and 69.09 % and the other is 30.91 %.  If the average atomic mass is 63.5472 amu, what is the atomic mass of the other isotope.       



7. Complete the chart below.


                                    Protons                                    Electrons                      Neutrons












8.         Write a quantum electron configuration for each of the following.


            a)         Ne


            b)         Mg


            c)         Ti


            d)         Cr       


            e)         Sr


            f)          Ag


            g)         Br



9.         What was the first atomic theory to account for the Law of Conservation of Mass?

            Explain how the theory accomplished this.






10.       What was the first atomic theory to account for electromagnetic radiation (light)?

            Explain how the theory accomplished this.


11.       What was the first atomic theory to account for the small, dense nucleus?

            Explain how the theory accomplished this.






12.       What was the first atomic theory to have a wave theory for the electron?

            Explain how the theory accomplished this.






13.       What was the first atomic theory to account for positive and negative charges in             matter?  Explain how the theory accomplished this.






Worksheet #4             Periodic Chemistry


1.         Define the following:


a)         Oxidation



b)         Reduction



c)         Anion



d)         Cation



e)         Atom



f)          Chemical family



g)         Period



2.         Why are noble gases stable?




3.         Why are non-noble gases un-stable or reactive?




4.         Draw Bohr diagrams for the following chemical species.


a)         He                                                        b)         K






c)         K+                                                        d)         S2-









e)         P3-                                                        f)          Li+









5.         Fill in the chart below.


Symbol     atom,           Protons    Neutrons      Electrons         Valence           stable or

                 cation or                                                                  Electrons          reactive?




Mg2+             Cation        12               12             10                    8                      Stable





















Worksheet #5                         Ionic Chemistry


1. Symbol   Atom,          Protons          Neutrons          Electrons        Valence       stable or

                   Cation or                                                                           Electrons    reactive?    



Ga               atom               31                    39                    31                     3            reactive



















2.         What happens to protons, electrons and neutrons as you move form left to right             within a row on the periodic table?



3.         Write half-reactions to show how each atom forms an ion. Label each as oxidation        or reduction. The first two are done for you.


a)         K                K+        +          1e-                          oxidation


b)         N2        +          6e-                2N3-                       reduction


c)         P


d)         O2


e)         Ca


f)          Br2


g)         I2


h)         Al


i)          Ba


j)          Cs


k)         Mg


l)          Zn


m)        Ga


n)         Cl2


o)         F2



4.         Describe five properties of:      

            a) Metals




            b) Non-metals




5.         Draw Bohr diagrams for each of the following.


            a)         Na                                                       b)         Na+


            c)         O                                                         d)         O2-







            e)         Ca                                                        f)          Ca2+








Worksheet # 6            Classifying and Naming Formulas 1


1. Complete the table.


                                                Salt                              Base                 Acid                 Covalent











2.         Put each formula into the table below.


Ca(OH)2                      NH4OH                       CH3OH                        C12H22O11


HCl                              PI3                               K2SO4                         RbOH


H3PO4                          NaOH                          CaCl2                                Li2SO4


H2SO3                          BaF2                            BCl5                             CH3COOH


H2CO3                         CsOH                          S2Cl2                            Fr2S






Salt                              Base                             Acid                             Covalent Nonacid













3.         Draw Bohr diagrams for each of the following.

            a) K+                                                                            b) P3-



4.         Write half-reactions to show how each atom forms an ion. Label each as oxidation        or reduction. The first two are done for you.


            a)         Ca               Ca2+     +          2e-                          oxidation


            b)         O2        +          4e-                2O2-                       reduction


            c)         I2


            d)         N2


            e)         Cs


            f)          Ba


            g)         Al


            h)         F2


            i)          H2


            j)          Na+        +   1e-  ®    Na(s)


            k)         N3-       ®        N2        +          6e-


            l)          Ca2+


            m)        Ba2+
Worksheet # 7            Classifying and Naming Formulas 2


1. Complete the following table by classifying and naming each compound


Formula                                    Classification                            Name










































Complete the following table by classifying and naming each compound.



2. Formula                                Classification                            Name 


HI (aq)                                                                                                                                      




















CuSO4 . 6H2O(aq)                                                                                                                     












Na3PO4 . 5H2O(aq)                                                                                                                   








Use your Quantum Periodic Table to write quantum electron configurations for each element below.


3.         Sr                                                                                


4.         V                                                                                


5.                                 1s22s22p63s2


6.                                 1s22s22p63s23p3


7.                                 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d4




 Pick the best answers.  Answers can be used more than once.


Answers:          Four Element Theory   

                        Dalton’s Atomic Theory

                        Thomson’s Atomic Theory

                        Rutherford’s Atomic Theory

                        Bohr’s Atomic Theory

                        Quantum Mechanical Theory


8.                                 The 1st model of the atom to explain the gold foil experiment     


9.                                 The 1st model to explain light


10.                               The 1st model to account for the Law of Constant Composition


11.                               The 1st model to have a small, dense nucleus


12.                               The 1st model to have an electron as a wave


13.                               Non-scientific Theory


14.                               The 1st model to have electrons


15.                               The 1st model to account for the Law of Conservation of Mass


16.                               Modern theory of the atom


17.                               The 1st model to claim the atom is mainly “empty space”


Worksheet #8             Electron Dot Diagrams

Draw structural and electron-dot diagrams for each.



                                                            Structural                                              Dot-Diagram























































































Name each compound

1.                              CH3COOH(aq)                                                                         

2.                              HBr(aq)                                                                                             

3.                              HF(g)                                                                                                 

4.                              HNO3(aq)                                                                                         

5.                              HClO4(aq)                                                                                        

Write the quantum electron configurations for the following.

6.                              Cl-                                                                               

7.                              Sr2+                                                                             

8.                              I                                                                                  

Write a dissociation equation for each to show how each ionizes in water.

9.         CH3COOH(l)

10.       HNO3(l)

11.       Al2(SO4)3(s)

12.       Co3(PO4)2(s)

Name each compound above.












17.       Classify and name the following compounds.















Worksheet # 9                        Electron Dot Diagrams

Draw structural and electron-dot diagrams for each.


ClO3-                                                                PO43-






IO3-                                                                  BrO3-






CN-                                                                  NO3-






SO42-                                                                CaCO3




Li2SO4                                                             CCl4






NI3                                                                   NSCl






NH4+                                                                H3O+





NaCl                                                                ClO3-






Draw structural and electron-dot diagrams for each.


BrO4-                                                                                                    PO33-






IO4-                                                                                                        NO3-





HCN                                                                            SO32-






CO32-                                                                                                    CaS




Na2SO4                                                                                               NCl3







N2                                                                                                          O2






Cl2                                                                                                          C2H6







C2H4                                                                                                     C2H2







Draw electron dot diagrams for each ionic compound

































Worksheet # 10          Practice Test 1


1.         Classify as stable or reactive.


            Na                   N+                    Ne                   Cl-                    S2-                    S3-       

            P                      P3-                    Ca                    Ca+2             NaCl                    N3-      


2.         Describe a metal and a nonmetal in terms of gaining or losing electrons.



3.         Why are noble gases always stable?



4.         Determine the number of valence electrons for: 


            Ca                    Ca2+                 Cl                     Cl-      


            O                     O2-                   Al


5.         Draw a Bohr diagram for


            Ca                                Ca2+                             N                                 N3-










6.   Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each. 


                        Protons            Neutrons                      Electrons










7.         Classify as ionic or covalent compounds.


            HCl                  CH3OH                        H2O                             NH4OH                      


            NaCl                MgSO4                        CoCl2                           H3PO4


            NH3                 P2O5                             Ba(OH)2


8.         Classify the above compounds into


Acids               Covalent Non-acids                  Salts                 Bases.








9.         Calculate the average atomic mass for magnesium using the following percentage            abundance data.


                24Mg      78.70%   (24.00 amu)  

                25Mg   10.13%    (25.00 amu)   

                26Mg     11.17%    (26.00 amu)




10.       Write the formulas for each ionic compound.


            Magnesium chloride


            Silver phosphate


            Cobalt III oxide

            Zinc phosphate


            Calcium nitride


            Copper I nitrate.


11.       Name each ionic compound.


            Fe2(SO4)3                                             CoCl3                          


            Na2O                                                   AgCl                                                   


            Na3PO4                                                CaF2                           


            NH4OH                                               Ca(NO3)2           


            K2Cr2O7                                              MgCrO4      



12.       Name each covalent compound.


            P2O5                                                    N2O3                           


            CO                                                      CO2                              


            SO2                                                      P3O5                                        


            C6H6                                                    H2SO4(l)


            HCl(l)                                                    HNO3(l)                       


            H2CrO4(aq)                                            HF(aq)


            H3PO4(l)                                               H2CO3(aq)



13.       Complete the chart below.

                        Protons            Neutrons          Electrons          Reactive           # of valence

                                                                                                or stable?         Electrons         









14.       Write dissociation equations showing how each salt or acid dissolves in water and          forms ions. The first one is done for you.


            MgCl2          Mg2+    +    2Cl-










16.       Name each acid: 


            HCl (aq)                                   HClO3 (aq)                   


            HNO3  (aq)                              HBr(aq)




17.       Classify each as formula units or molecules.


            NaF                                                     H2O                            


            CH4                                                     NH4Cl             


            CaSO4                                                 CH3OH                       






18.       Indicate the solutions that conduct electricity.


            NaCl(s)                                                NaCl(aq)                       


            Ca(OH)2(aq)                                        HCl(aq)    


            NH4OH(aq)                                         C6H12O6(aq)







19.       Consider the following electron configuration 1s22s22p6. Determine the element and some ions that have the above electron configuration.








20.       Describe why NaCl(s) doesn’t conduct electricity.  Describe what happens to     NaCl(s) when it is dissolved in water.  Why does it conduct electricity?






21.       Write the quantum electron configuration for each (1s22s2p.....)


            He                                                        Ar


            Na                                                       Na+    


            Cl                                                         Cl-     


            K                                                         K+      


            Br                                                        Br-


22.       What two particles make up most of the mass within an atom?


23.       I am an atom with 35p   40n.  Who am I?


24.       I am a cation with 56p    81n   &  54e.   Who am I?



25.       Define isotopes.



26.       In Rutherford’s Gold foil experiment some particles were completely undeflected           and others were radically deflected.  Describe the significance of each in terms of the structure of the atom.





27.       Define ionic and covalent bonding




28.       How many valence electrons are in the calcium ion?




29.       How many valence electrons are in the fluoride ion?




30.       What is the name of the family that has and electron configuration of:


a)          s2p5                                      


b)         s1                                                     


c)         s2p2                                      






31.       Consider the following electron configuration 1s22s22s22p63s23p6 . Determine the           element and some ions that have the above electron configuration. These are           called isoelectronic.










Draw electron dot diagrams for the following using brackets for ions. Write a dissociation equation first.


32.       NaCl





33.       Li2O


34.       CaF2





Name and classify each compound as an acid, molecular, salt, or base.


35.       CuSO4(aq)                                                                                                                                                                                                                    


36.       P2O4(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                       


37.       H2SO4(aq)                                                                                                                                                                                             


38.       H2Cr2O7(aq)                                                                                                                                                                                                                  


39.       H2Cr2O7(l)                                                                                                                                                                                                                               


40.       Ca(OH)2 . 5H2O                                                                                                                   



41.       HBr(aq)                                                                                                                         




42.       Calculate the average atomic mass for neon if there are three naturally occurring             isotopes and they are:


20Ne  mass = 19.9924404 amu  abundance =               90.92 %

21Ne  mass = 20.993849 amu  abundance =                 0.2570 %

22Ne  mass = 21.991385 amu  abundance =                 8.820 %.

            Show some work if you want some marks. Round to an appropriate number of sig        figs.     








43.       Name each compound below. Assume all compounds are aqueous.


Ca(OH)2                                                          NH4OH                                                          



CH3OH                                                            C12H22O11                                                          



HCl                                                                  PI3                                                                  



K2SO4                                                             RbOH                                                 



H3PO4                                                              NaOH                                                             



CaCl2                                                                    Li2SO4                                                     



SiO2                                                                 BaF2                                                               



BCl5                                                                 CH3COOH                                         



H2CO3                                                             CsOH                                                             



S2Cl2                                                                Fr2S                                                    



Fe2(SO4)3                                                        ZnCl2                                                  



Co3(PO4)2                                                        Ag2Cr2O7                                            














Worksheet # 11          Practice Test 2


Balance each equation.



1.         ___C16H34  +  ___O2            ___CO2           +          ___H2O


2.         ___Ga    +   ____H2SO4   → ____H2  +  ____Ga2(SO4)3



Write a balanced equation including phase symbols.


3.         Solid carbon reacts with chlorine gas to produce liquid tetracarbon        decachloride.






Write chemical formulas for each ionic or molecular compound.



4.         Strontium sulphide                                                                                                       



5.         triphosphorous hexoxide                                                                                              



6.         Osmium IV sulphide                                                                                        



Name each chemical formula



7.         Sn(CO3)2.5H2O                                                                                                                      


8.         Si3F8                                                                                                                          



9.         NaHCO3                                                                                                                                





Classify the following as acids, bases, salts, and molecular non-acids. Name each.



10.       Sn(SO4)2                                                                                                                                



11.       Ca(OH)2                                                                                                                                



12.       CH3COOH                                                                                                                



13.       S2O5                                                                                                                          




Round off each measured number to three significant figures.


14.       0.0056349                                          

15.       539663                                                           



Add or subtract the measured quantities.


16.       153.267  +  0.53493                                                                                       



17        4.5631  x  1024    +   2.36   x   1023                                                     

Simplify the following rounding to the correct number of significant figures.




18.       (5.6 x 10 -24)  (5.37894  x 10-25)(6.532   x 1015)


            (2.059378 x 1024)(5.23  x  1022)(9.37894  x 10-13)










Use unit analysis and the conversion factors to perform the following conversions:


2.210 lb  =  1.000 kg               14 lb  = 1 stone (defined)         

2000 lb   =  1 ton (defined)       1.61 km   =   1.00 mile

4.54 L  =  1.00 gallon               16 oz  =  1 lb (defined)



19.       236 oz to stone





20.       8.53 stone to oz




21.       25.6 mi/h to km/s





State the model of the atom is best described by each statement below.


22.       First model to account for The Law of Conservation of Mass.                          

23.       The first theory to explain the emission of photons.                                                        

24.       First model to account for positive and negative charges.                                                          


25.       First model to account for the wave properties of electrons.                              

26.       First model to include a small dense nucleus.                                                     

27.       Describes the atom as a small dense nucleus surrounded with electrons, which are          not in orbitals.                                                                                      

28.       Describes the atom as a small dense nucleus surrounded with electrons, which are          in spherical orbitals.                                                                             

29.       Describes the atom as a spherical atom that is indestructible and combines in      simple whole number ratios to form compounds.                                                     

30.       Describes electrons as being contained in a complex 3D orbitals as negative       clouds of vibrational energy                                                                  

31.       Non-scientific theory that delayed modern theories of the atom for 1800 years   and was shown to be incorrect.                                                            


What did the evidence tell us about the nature of the atom?


32.       99 % of alphas in the gold foil experiment were completely un-deflected.                                                                                                                                  



33.       1 % of alphas in the gold foil experiment were radically deflected.                                                                                                                                 



34.       Flame spectroscopy of an element produces an emission spectrum consisting     of 4 photons.                                                                                       


35.       A beam of negative particles is produced in a Crooke’s tube.                                                                                                                          


36.       There are five naturally occurring isotopes of Germanium. Complete the chart to            show the number of protons neutrons and electrons.


                        protons neutrons           electrons           At. Mass     Abundance


70Ge                                                                                         69.92428         20.52%


72Ge                                                                                         71.92174         27.43%


73Ge                                                                                         72.9234           7.760%


74Ge                                                                                         73.92115         36.54%


76Ge                                                                                         75.9214           7.760%


37.       Calculate the average atomic mass of Germanium. Show some work if you        want some marks. Round to an appropriate number of significant figs.


38.       Write the quantum electron configurations for the following atoms or ions.



39.       F                                                                                             


40.       Ga                                                                               


41.       Br-                                                                               


42.       Rb+                                                                             



Determine the element that has the following electron configuration.


43.       1s22s22p63s2    



Determine a cation that has the following electron configuration.


44.       1s22s22p63s23p6          



Determine an anion that has the following electron configuration.


45.       1s22s22p63s23p6          



Complete the following chart.


Symbol             p      e     n       valance el.        stable/unstable         atom/cation/anion


46.       Na        


47.       P-3       


48.       Xe                                                                                                                               


49.       Sr+2 



Name and classify each compound as an acid, molecular, salt, or base.


50.       CuSO4(aq)                                                                                                                    


51.       P2O4(s)                                                                                                             


52.       H2SO4(aq)                                                                                                         


53.       H2CO3(aq)                                                                                                                    


54.       H2CO3(l)                                                                                                                      


55.       Ba(OH)2. 2H2O                                                                                                           


56.       HF(aq)                                                                                                              




Write structural diagrams and electron-dot diagrams for each.


57.       CCl4



58.       S2



59.       NH3



60.       CO2



Write electron-dot diagrams for each.



61.       NaCl





62.       SO42-





63.       Na3PO4






64.       NO3-






65.       NH4+






66.       IO4-